think the key national priority
right now is stopping Brexit.
I would put it above everything
else right now for the country."
"The biggest idea in human
history is probably the
The EU has
the highest standard of living
in human history. People
longer, happier, healthier,
saner, safer, gentler lives than
anywhere else in the world ..
The biggest ideas in human
come from a fierce
belief in human possibility."
"To allow the market
mechanism to be the sole
director of the
human beings and their
natural environment ..
result in the
demolition of society."
2017 December 17
1 Populism is neither the authentic part
of modern democratic politics nor a kind of pathology caused by
irrational citizens. It is the permanent shadow of representative
2 Not everyone who
criticizes elites is a populist. In addition to being anti-elitist,
populists are anti-pluralist. They claim that they and they alone
represent the people.
can represent the common good as willed by the people. But what
matters for populists is a symbolic representation of the real
people from which they then deduce the correct policy.
4 While populists often call for
referenda, such exercises are not about initiating open democratic
debates. Populists simply wish to be confirmed in what they have
already determined the real will be the people to be.
5 Populists can govern in line with
their commitment to the idea that only they represent the people.
They will engage in occupying the state, mass clientelism and
corruption, and the suppression of a critical civil society.
6 Populists are a real danger to
democracy. But that does not mean one should not engage them in
political debate. Talking with populists is not the same as talking
7 Populism is not
a corrective to liberal democracy in the sense of bringing politics
closer to the people or reasserting popular sovereignty. But it can
be useful in showing that parts of the population are
2017 December 16
As a professor, I believe academics should
think afresh about how we train our graduate students. Doctoral
study should not be aimed purely at creating academics. Ours is a
connected globe, and we need to reform doctoral education with this
Tests show that college students leave college
unready for decent jobs. But humans are not things. The role of
doctoral study is to equip academically very smart students to be
many things, potentially, over the course of their lives.
Professors are decathletes of the mind. A marketing professional
would describe them as expert speakers, media design technicians,
project managers, and more. We design and run research projects, run
budgets, hire staff, build networks, and stump for funding.
Faculty life requires many more practical skills than the title
Doctor of Philosophy suggests. We must be more honest about this. We
need our best and brightest to make their knowledge useful to the
world and to society.
The universe is made of matter and not
antimatter, even though the laws of nature appear symmetric between
the two. It seems to have about five times as much dark matter as
all the normal matter we see. And we need dark energy to add up to
more than all the rest combined. Three puzzles — the neutrino might
explain them all.
The standard model of particle physics has
six flavors of quarks and leptons, their antiparticles, the gauge
bosons, and the Higgs, but leaves the mystery of why the particle
masses have the values they do. The standard model of cosmology has
an inflationary big bang, matter and not antimatter, and a history
of structure formation that leads to the modern universe, but leaves
the mysteries of dark matter and dark energy.
oscillations — where neutrinos flip between flavors as they fly through space — imply that neutrinos have a small mass. We see
neutrinos with left spin and anti-neutrinos with right
spin. A symmetry would give an equal balance of left and right
spins. The asymmetry suggests that neutrinos are not normal Dirac
fermions but Majorana fermions, which are their own antiparticles.
Normal left and right neutrinos might both have a mass of around
100 GeV. A heavy particle could break the symmetry to give a right
neutrino with a huge mass of around 10^15 GeV and a left neutrino
with a tiny mass of around 0.01 eV. The huge-mass neutrinos could be
the cold dark matter candidates known as Wimpzillas. The tiny-mass
neutrinos could be the ones we detect. More:
vacuum energy of the universe suggests a cosmological
constant of around (10^19 GeV)^4, which is too big by about 120
orders of magnitude. But if you replace 10^19 GeV with the neutrino mass of
0.01 eV, you get a number that matches nicely. This
— The broken symmetry gives more
matter than antimatter in the universe. Mixed-state neutrinos
can create more leptons than anti-leptons in the neutrino
sector, giving rise to a cosmic asymmetry.
double beta decay would tell us that neutrinos have Majorana
properties. Such decay, if it exists, has a very long lifetime, but
future experiments should be able to measure it.
In the standard model, matter and
antimatter particles carry opposite electrical charge. When matter
and antimatter particles collide, they annihilate in a flash of
radiation. The big bang should have produced equal amounts of matter
and antimatter. But a small fraction of the original matter survived
to form the known universe.
Matter and antimatter might decay
differently. This would violate charge-parity (CP) symmetry, which
conserves the laws of physics if matter particles swap with their
antiparticles (charge) in mirror reflection (parity). Many
physicists think CP is violated in the neutrino sector — explaining
why we are made of matter.
2017 December 15
To taste a future without net neutrality, try
browsing the web in Beijing. Filtered by the Great Firewall of
China, some sites load with aching slowness, or not at all, and
content vanishes without warning or explanation. Most Chinese
netizens simply gravitate to the Chinese counterparts of Facebook,
Google, and Twitter, which come with heavy government surveillance
Markets vs Democracy
Democracy and capitalism seem increasingly
incompatible. Global capitalism has escaped the bounds of the
postwar mixed economy that had reconciled dynamism with security.
Wealth has crowded out citizenship, producing extreme inequality and
The great prophet of this
development was Karl Polanyi, who saw that market society could only
exist because of deliberate government action defining property
rights, terms of labor, trade, and finance. Today, we see a push for
deregulated trade and the dismantling of labor market safeguards to
increase profits for multinational corporations.
born in 1886 in Vienna to an illustrious Jewish family. In 1904, he
began studies at the University of Budapest. After WW1, he became an
economics journalist. He was a left-wing social democrat and a
lifelong skeptic of the possibility that a capitalist society would
ever tolerate a hybrid economic system.
Living in Red Vienna,
Polanyi saw that an island of municipal socialism could not survive
larger market turbulence and rising fascism. In 1933, he moved to
London and found work sponsored by Oxford University. There he
watched history demonstrate that an unrestrained free market leads
to democratic breakdown.
After WW2, Polanyi worked in
America. He showed that the free market is no natural condition and
that democracy cannot survive an excessively free market. Today he
would say Brexit and Trump show capitalism has won and democracy has
Democrat defeats tainted
candidate backed by Trump
for Alabama Senator
Rebels defy May government
to force meaningful
Brexit deal before too late.
In my 1996 novel
I mooted laser battlestations
N and S poles of the
Moon to fire off at
ANN Helps NASA Find Planet
The NASA Kepler Space Telescope has discovered an
eighth planet circling Kepler-90, a Sun-like star 2545 light years
from Earth. Kepler-90i, a hot, rocky planet that orbits its star
once every 14.4 days, was found using machine learning from Google.
A Google artificial neural network (ANN) sifted through Kepler
data and found weak transit signals from a previously missed eighth
planet orbiting Kepler-90. About 30% larger than Earth, Kepler-90i
is so close to its star that its average surface temperature exceeds
700 K, like the hot side of Mercury. The outermost planet,
Kepler-90h, orbits as far from Kepler-90 as Earth does from the Sun.
The Kepler dataset consists of 35 000 possible planetary
signals. After gazing at one patch of space for 4 years, Kepler now
switches its field of view every 80 days.
2017 December 14
We all know men who try to seduce a lot of
women and often enough succeed. In the past, we accepted them as
part of the normal order of things. No one we knew disapproved of
premarital sex, homosexuality, or any private activity between
Whatever lies ahead of us, new rules
couched in the language of safety and respect will regulate us. You will have to seek verbal consent before you kiss a woman or touch
her in a sensitive place, or anywhere. Anyone can adapt to this new
There has never been a good defense of sleeping with
interns or junior employees. Such eroticism sours everything it
touches and creates a poisonous dynamic for all workers. The logical
outcome is adoption of affirmative consent as the norm governing
relations between the sexes.
Sex is an intractable conundrum
rather than a solvable problem. There may be no good way to render
safe and tractable the will to domination and subordination that
feminists see as bound up in sexual desire. Nothing is so dangerous
as power that is not acknowledged.
2017 December 13
Russia vs America
United States intelligence officers agree
that Russians interfered in the 2016 presidential election.
Russian hackers breached the servers of the Democratic National
Committee and the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee. They
leaked the data they found, they probed the voting infrastructure of
various US states, and they quietly posted divisive content on
Facebook. Their aim was to embarrass and damage Hillary Clinton, to
sow dissension, and to show that democracy in America is at least as
corrupt as in Russia.
In October 2016, the Department of
Homeland Security and the Office of the Director of National
Intelligence said they were confident that the Russian government
had directed the compromises of emails from US political
organizations with the aim of interfering with the US election
At the 2007 Munich Conference on Security Policy,
Russian president Vladimir Putin explained his motivation. Two
decades earlier, the world was ideologically and economically split,
and its security was assured by the strategic balance of two
superpowers. But a unipolar world dominated only by America had
nothing to do with democracy. The new order was both unacceptable
and ineffective. The time had come to rethink the entire
architecture of global security.
Putin has spent the decade
since that speech making sure that the United States can never again
maneuver unilaterally without encountering friction. He evidently
believes that in their attempts to promote democracy, Americans are
The victory of Donald Trump seemed to be a
great coup for Putin. But it left us all in danger.
2017 December 12
In Arthur C. Clarke's 1973 science fiction classic
Rendezvous with Rama, astronomers detect a cylindrical
interstellar object entering the solar system. At first they think
is an asteroid, but then they find it is an alien spacecraft.
Science fact, 2017: Astronomers thought it was a comet or an
asteroid from within the solar system. But after studying its orbit
and discovering its long, cylindrical shape, they find it is neither
and has come from interstellar space.
Oumuamua was discovered
by a team at the University of Hawaii in October. It seems to have a
cylindrical form, hundreds of meters long and perhaps tens in
diameter, that has never been seen in space before.
— up to 90 km/s — suggests that it will continue its voyage back
into interstellar space. Six weeks of study shows it is not made of
ice and is dark red in color. SETI researchers will seek to detect
evidence of alien technology in its EM emissions.
Harvard astrophysicist Avi Loeb: "If this object is natural in
origin, there should be many more like it in the solar system .. and
even if most of them are natural, perhaps one of them will be found
to be of artificial origin, some space device or junk from an alien
NASA Moon Base
President Trump has directed NASA to aim
for the Moon: "This time, we will not only plant our flag and leave
our footprint. We will establish a foundation for an eventual
mission to Mars and perhaps, someday, to many worlds beyond."
US vice president Mike Pence said a strategic military presence
on the Moon will "enhance our national security and our capacity to
provide for the common defense of the people of the United States of
2017 December 11
Descrying the Divine
Where landscapes are untapped and
unmanageable, where survival and well-being are irrational factors,
state power becomes a sanctuary. This applied everywhere in the
ancient world and still applies today in Russia, with its huge,
poorly developed, sparsely and unevenly populated space. Above all,
the king must be able to communicate with those powers that the
human being cannot control or grasp rationally. He has to
communicate with the divine. Putin is our president.
AR The One.
Germany — Coalition Options
German chancellor Angela Merkel
spent two months mulling a potential government coalition — then the
Free Democrats walked out. The Social Democrats decided to enter
talks — then SPD leader Martin Schulz said he wants a United States
of Europe by 2025. Talks could continue well into 2018.
Foreign minister Sigmar Gabriel said last week that Europeans will
have to stand up to the Trump administration and accept that America
sees Europe as a competitor. He floated a new detente with Russia
but ignored a promised increase in German defense spending. The
world is waiting.
Die Mühlen der Demokratie mahlen langsam aber
Defending the Faith
Prince Charles is the heir apparent
while the Queen remains the UK sovereign. His coronation is likely
to raise questions about institutional links between church,
monarchy, and parliament. The monarch is crowned and anointed by the
Archbishop of Canterbury at Westminster Abbey.
One in four
countries worldwide had a state religion in 2011. Of those, only the
UK and Iran have religious leaders in their legislatures by right.
In the UK, 26 Church of England bishops have reserved seats in the
House of Lords. The UK monarch is supreme governor of the Church of
England and Defender of the Faith.
From a new report by the National Secular Society: "The voices
of religious privilege are loud and their vested interests are
strong. But .. if Britain is to become a modern state rather than
one in which parliament continues to cleave to its medieval past,
then the separation of church and state needs to be part of the
AR Rebrand Britain
the United Sovereign Secular Republic.
Brexit — Second Referendum
Conservatives bent on delivering what they think is the "will of
the people" are deluded if they expect any thanks. Brexit is a Tory
project and most voters now think the talks are going badly. The
Conservative reputation will be hard to win back.
believe that a trade agreement can be completed in two years. Voters
will likely feel as if they are still in the EU by the next
election. To avoid annihilation, the Tories should try to get a good
deal and then put it to a public vote.
A new poll finds that more than half of
voters support a referendum on the EU exit package. The government
is in disarray and disagrees on most issues related to Brexit. The
only way to resolve this is to put the decision back to the people.
Today I publish a bill that aims to give voters the final say on
Brexit. The government would let the people choose between its
negotiated deal and the option of reversing article 50 and remaining
in the EU. This honours the will of the people.
AR Do it.
2017 December 10
I think science will hit the buffers at some
point. The question of how far science can go partly depends on how
we define complexity. Atoms and astronomical phenomena can be quite
basic, but everything in between gets tricky.
Most complex of all are living things. Everything is made of
atoms, and obeys the laws of quantum physics. But even if those
equations could be solved for immense aggregates of atoms, living
systems manifest emergent properties that are best understood in
terms of new concepts.
We can expect huge advances on the
small, the large, and the complex. But efforts to understand complex
systems, such as our own brains, might well hit limits. And
physicists might never understand the bedrock nature of space and
time because the mathematics is just too hard.
thinking has led to culture and science. But this activity will
probably be a brief precursor to the more powerful intellects of the
post-human era. A full understanding of physical reality need not be
within our grasp.
The four forces of
nature, the particles, and the phenomena they explain. The atomic
and nuclear interactions are unified
in the standard model using
quantum field theory. Gravity is described by general relativity.
But QFT and GR are incompatible without a quantum theory of gravity.
Ode to Joy
"We must build a kind of
United States of Europe"
"Trump is a chump .. he is
ignorant and thinks the world
started the day he was elected,
and so he is easily gamed."
Thomas L. Friedman
Person of the Year
2017-10-04: Erik Verlinde suggests that gravity emerges from
entropy. There are well known relationships between thermodynamics
and GR. The laws of thermodynamics emerge from statistical
mechanics, and perhaps gravity emerges similarly.
uses ideas from string theory to relate quantum information theory
and the emergence of gravity and spacetime. The basic idea is that
fundamental qubits possess temperature and entropy, and that
everything else about gravitation can be derived from that.
He says we may need to work with qubits to understand gravity.
Entropy is the total number of bits of information in a system, or
qubits in a quantum world. QFT describes how the surface area of a
black hole event horizon measured in qubits is proportional to its
He says entangled qubits may explain dark matter.
Entanglement increases as the universe expands. The entropy of the
universe from photons is about 10^90 bits. From the size of the
cosmological horizon, he says it should be 10^120 bits. This is all very
2017 December 9
Big Old Black Hole
The discovery of a supermassive black hole
in the early universe is helping us resolve big questions. The black
hole dates back to 690 million years after the Big Bang (My ABB).
Reionization, the process that defogged the universe, was about half
complete at that time. The black hole already weighed 780 million
Black holes grow when cosmic matter falls into
them, generating light and heat. At some point, the radiation
emitted by material falling in carries out so much momentum that it
blocks new stuff from falling in, creating a speed limit for black
hole growth called the Eddington rate. Extrapolating back at the
Eddington rate, collapsing clouds in the early universe gave birth
to big baby black holes with thousands of solar masses.
earlier, when protons and electrons first formed hydrogen atoms, the
neutral atoms absorbed UV light from the first stars. In time, young
stars or quasars emitted enough light to reionize these atoms and
dissipate the cosmic fog. Reionization was largely complete by
around 1 Gy ABB.
The gas around the newly discovered quasar
is about half neutral, half ionized. So there, at least,
reionization was only half done. We could use more data.
2017 December 8
United States of Europe
I want a new constitutional treaty to
establish the United States of Europe — a Europe that is no threat
to its member states, but a beneficial addition.
will draft this treaty in close cooperation with the civil society
and the people. Its results will then be submitted to all member
states. Any state that does not ratify the treaty will automatically
leave the EU.
We need not a European austerity diktat but
investments in a eurozone budget. We need a European finance
minister who curbs the race to the bottom in tax policy and ends tax
avoidance. We need a European framework for a minimum wage that ends
We have not yet answered the question what
social democracy stands for in the 21st century.
"The Federated Republic of Europe — the United States of Europe —
that is what must be. National autonomy no longer suffices. Economic
evolution demands the abolition of national frontiers. If Europe is
to remain split into national groups, then Imperialism will
recommence its work. Only a Federated Republic of Europe can give
peace to the world."
Brexit — Sufficient Progress
Theresa May and Jean-Claude Juncker met
in Brussels early today to sign a 15-page progress report that will
let EU negotiators recommend opening a second phase of talks on
● Citizen rights: EU
citizens living in the UK and UK nationals living in the EU will be
able to claim permanent residency status through transparent, smooth
and streamlined procedures. Primacy of the ECJ interpretation of EU
citizen rights laws will continue indefinitely.
● Irish border: A
fallback provision to avoid a hard border between the Republic of
Ireland and Northern Ireland ensures full alignment with the EU
single market and customs union. The EU has accepted UK assurances
and talks can move on.
● Divorce settlement:
The UK will pay into the EU budgets for 2019 and 2020 as if it had
remained in the bloc. It will also contribute its share of the
financing for any EU liabilities incurred before the end of 2020. The UK can expect a net bill of
2017 December 7
Trump — Courage
For decades, the international community has
tacitly acknowledged that Jerusalem is the capital of the Jewish
state. Now US President Donald Trump wants to move the US embassy to
The previous refusal of US administrations to
recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel has brought peace no
closer. Experts warn that the Muslim world will never accept this
and Muslim leaders warn that it will end the peace process. What
Trump has made it clear that the
recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and the transfer
of the embassy to Jerusalem is not a preliminary decision regarding
the final status of the city and the future borders between Israel
and a Palestinian state.
Israel will never renounce Jerusalem as
its capital. The Arab campaign against Jerusalem as the capital of
the Jewish state is only part of the Arab struggle against the
reality of Israel. Anyone who does not even acknowledge its
existence has no right to protest against Jerusalem as its capital.
Trump is right: Twenty years of denial have not brought peace
closer. Time to move on.
Brexit — Lessons
For the UK, Brexit talks have been a
humiliating rendezvous with reality. Rule Britannia platitudes
fizzled on contact with the facts of life:
1 A fundamental
asymmetry unbalances the negotiation. The cost of failure is
proportionately much higher for the UK than for the EU27.
Westminster politicians have not grasped that the EU is a union
built on laws. A bespoke deal translates into German as cherry
3 The sovereign right to wave goodbye to
a morass of regulatory agencies is the sovereignty of the person
shipwrecked on a desert island.
4 Access to the single market for a
transitional period after departure will oblige the UK to continue
to respect all the rules.
5 The only framework on offer for a
future trade deal will be one that complies with the principle that benefits are restricted to members.
decided unilaterally to leave the EU. The EU27 will now decide what
agreement it is prepared to make with a third country.
Eat dirt, Brexit blowhards.
A Russian Soyuz/Fregat launch from the
Vostochny Cosmodrome failed last week.
Deputy prime minister
Dmitry Rogozin is coming under criticism.
Zero plays superhuman
chess after teaching itself from
scratch, starting from random
play, given only the game
in 24 hours.
Buy now for Xmas
2017 December 6
Islamist crazies will see this as a declaration of war.
Brexit — Outline Betrayal
The capitulation of the Brexiteers is striking.
They are displaying all the iron discipline of a sect that believes
it is tantalisingly close to reaching its holy grail. For them, all
that matters is to drag the country across the legal finishing line
in March 2019. Then there is no turning back from Brexit.
reach their promised land, the Brexiteers in Westminster intend to
deliver to the UK parliament a mere "Heads of Agreement" governing
the future relations between the UK and the EU. The details of that
future relationship will be left to further negotiations. The
Brexiteers calculate that an outline deal, bereft of the invidious
content that a proper agreement would include, is the ideal document
to put to parliament.
But this is not what the British people
were promised. The government said parliament will be able to vote
on both the terms of our departure and the terms of our future
interaction with the EU. It would be a betrayal if MPs were fobbed
off with the outline of an agreement shorn of all detail.
Brexit — Crisis Warning
Brexit Secretary David Davis says Brexit will
be a change comparable with the 2008 financial crisis.
before the Brexit select committee where he said Whitehall had
carried out no Brexit impact assessments, Davis said of Brexit: "It
will have an effect. The assessment of that effect is not as
straightforward as people imagine. I'm not a fan of economic models
because they have all proven wrong. When you have a paradigm change
— as happened in 2008 with the financial crisis — all the models
The 2008 financial crisis cost the UK economy up
to £7.4 trillion and led to a decade of austerity.
AR Abandon this hideous farce before HMS
2017 December 5
The Irish Question
Ireland is proving to be in a much
stronger political position than Britain. The UK is being forced to
accept what it claimed to be unacceptable, not because Ireland has
suddenly become a global superpower but because it has the
unflinching support of EU member states, the European parliament,
and the EU negotiating team. There might be a lesson in there
somewhere for a country facing a future without the allies it has
long taken for granted.
The human brain is a pudding of some 100
billion neurons and 100 trillion connections between them, packed
into a space of about 1.5 liters. Language and cooperation likely
worked together to drive the evolutionary growth of our brains.
Edward O. Wilson argues that Homo sapiens is a species that
ranks as eusocial, like bees, ants, and so on. We cooperate and
display group loyalty, to the point where the group essentially
operates as a unit of evolutionary selection.
waged a public battle against the importance of inclusive fitness,
which researchers have long cited to explain such behaviors as
altruism, homosexuality, even suicide. Wilson says the math is
2017 December 4
Brexit — No Deal on Trade Talks
UK prime minister Theresa May and European
Commission president Jean Claude Juncker say progress has been made
but differences remain.
Juncker: "It was not possible to
reach complete agreement today."
Apparently the UK is
prepared to accept that Northern Ireland may remain in the EU
customs union and single market in all but name. But the DUP will
not back any agreement that threatens the territorial integrity of
the UK. And Scottish, Welsh, and London leaders want an offer of
similar exceptional status after Brexit.
Surrounded by books has been a main
circumstance of my long life. Now 93, I have a library of perhaps
18,000 books in my house in Chester County, Pennsylvania. I was born
in Budapest, Hungary, in a home that housed many books.
about 1500 a new age began — the Age of Books. A golden age
followed. Today, few people know that the modern age, the Age of
Books, is now passing.
The modern age brought progress and a
transition from aristocracies to democracies. Public opinion had a
heyday in most of Europe and in America corresponding to the heyday
of the Age of Books. The health of democracies depended on the
existence of educated readers.
As a boy, I had an appetite
for history and literature. I saw that history was more of an art
than a science and, later, that science was but a part of history. I
survived the National Socialist and then the Russian conquest of
Hungary in 1944 and 1945, and fled my native country illegally in
I landed in New York penniless and forlorn, and became
an assistant lecturer in history at Columbia University. There I was
surprised at how many American students hardly read books at all.
Over roughly 50 years, I wrote and had many books published.
Many were published in multiple editions, translated and published
around the world. My own library grew, and we added a large
hexagonal library to our house. Perhaps this was my most precious
Today, the custom of reading and the numbers of
readers have declined. The Age of Books died with television and the
2017 December 3
Neoliberalism is broken. The global economic
system that drove growth and technological progress from 1989 to
2008 led to financial catastrophe. Now many people see the elites
getting richer and know their kids will be poorer.
alliance of the elite and the mob is emerging in which xenophobia,
violent misogyny, and racism support political power. The far right
and the conservative parties are converging around national
neoliberalism. It will not work.
We must stop nudging and
forcing market behavior into the lives of people and start letting
them express their human and collaborative impulse. We need a new
economic model with a narrative of hope and a social movement to
fight for it.
In the UK, Labour developed a narrative beyond
politics. We need to go further to gain cultural hegemony in the
wider society. We must offer a clear economic alternative to
● End austerity.
● Regulate the labor market to
promote the interests of workers.
● Build new homes for young
people on a massive scale.
● Use state intervention to
promote an innovative, high wage private sector.
● Modernize and extend the
● Build a utopia based on
work, with state provision of cheap or free basic goods and
● End the tyranny of trade
deals over social justice.
We need a new concept of
citizenship in Europe. It is hard to defend migration using the EU
concept of citizenship as primarily economic. The constitution of
Europe is framed around an economic system that no longer works.
Neoliberalism is the disenchantment of politics by economics.
Right wing populism is the re-enchantment of politics by
nationalism, racism, nostalgia, and misogyny. Radical social
democracy must re-enchant politics by social justice and a more
fully human concept of citizenship.
Minus the red balls, there is a lot of truth in this
2017 December 2
Math and Physics
Minhyong Kim has found a new way of
looking for patterns in the world of rational numbers. His vision is
based in physics — rational solutions are like light rays.
Rational solutions to equations are like puzzle pieces falling
perfectly into place. They are the subject of many of the most
famous conjectures in mathematics. We often wish to find rational
numbers that solve Diophantine equations — polynomial equations with
The more symmetric an object is, the
easier it is to study. We would like to study Diophantine equations
in a setting with more symmetry than the one where the problem
naturally occurs. Then we can harness the newly relevant symmetries
to track down the rational points we seek.
Numbers that have
particular kinds of symmetry relationships form groups. We use the
properties of a group to understand all the numbers it contains. But
the set of rational solutions to an equation has no symmetry and
forms no group.
A space is any set of points that has
geometric or topological structure. In general relativity, we think
of each spacetime configuration as a point in a space of all
spacetime configurations. Gauge theory has to do with fields that we
layer on top of physical space to describe how forces change as you
move through space.
Consider a beam of light. We imagine the
light moving through a higher-dimensional space of fields. In this
space, light follows the path that minimizes the amount of time
required to go from A to B.
These larger spaces of spaces
that come up in physics feature additional symmetries that are not
present in any of the spaces they represent. These symmetries draw
attention to specific points, such as the time-minimizing path for
light. Constructed in another way in another context, such
symmetries might emphasize other kinds of points — like the points
corresponding to rational solutions to equations.
theory has something like spacetime, and it also offers a way of
drawing paths and constructing a space of all possible paths. From
this basic correspondence, Kim is working out a scheme in which the
problem of finding the trajectory of light and that of finding
rational solutions to Diophantine equations are two facets of the
same problem — as he explained last week in Heidelberg, Germany.
AR Some 27 years ago in Heidelberg,
I published a pamphlet listing advanced math and physics texts and
emphasizing the amazingly fruitful interaction of math and physics
over recent centuries.
2017 December 1
Six impossible things before breakfast:
1 The British system
of free trade made Britain and the world richer. The EU system that
replaced it has constrained economic growth.
● The volume of world trade is twice
as high, relative to global output, now as at its peak before WW1.
Global output per head rose at 1.3% a year between 1870 and 1914,
well below the 1.9% achieved between 1980 and 2008.
2 The UK can have its cake on access to
EU markets and still eat it. The EU will accept new UK
after Brexit as equivalent to its own.
● The cake would either nullify UK
regulatory freedom or subvert EU regulations. The EU would surely
reject UK changes.
3 WTO members
are panting for UK leadership.
● Donald Trump is a protectionist
and the WTO has made no big trade deal since 2001.
4 The UK must soon leave the single
market and customs union in order to liberalise world trade.
● This ignores the costs of losing
favourable access to the single market and it reflects an entirely
unjustifiable belief in UK influence on global trade policy.
5 The government must instruct UK
customs to talk to member state customs agencies and work
cooperation with the EU27.
● The UK has no means to break EU27
6 The UK should not
let itself be bound by the EU negotiating mandate.
● The EU holds the cards and it
Do Brextremists really believe all six?
The Special Relationship
The British obsession about its special
relationship with America blew up the storm over Donald Trump's
Furious Brits demanded once again
that the US state visit should be expunged from the diary. If it
were not for the special relationship, the UK prime minister might
not have felt the need to condemn the US president in a public
utterance. But with a state visit on the cards she had little
France and Germany have more freedom in their US
relations without a special relationship. Angela Merkel talked about
defending European values on her visit to see the new president.
Emmanuel Macron entertained Vladimir Putin at Versailles and hosted
the Trumps at the Bastille Day parade.
A special relationship
is a lopsided arrangement that allows the UK to fantasize about
global power and influence.
Six Minutes in May
Nicholas Shakespeare brings tension to an
old story by understanding its human drama. His account of the
Norway Debate in May 1940 is a bravura performance, painting a vivid
backdrop that explains the meetings that made Churchill prime
minister two days later.
The six minutes of
the title refer to the length of the parliamentary division that
split the Tories and pushed Chamberlain to the brink. Shakespeare
brings the story to life. The story of Churchill's accession to
power on the day that Hitler's armies entered the Low Countries and
set course for France has never been infused with so much humanity.
Shakespeare's piercing account of the disastrous Norway campaign
that opens the book lays bare Churchill's failings and makes all the
more engrossing the political chaos from which he finally emerged
AR I am currently
reading the book.
AP/KCNA via KNS
Kim Jong Un with Hwasong-15 ICBM
would have been
to marry Harry
Best Bum winner Vita
Gonville and Caius):
"Though this may not quite
Cambridge First my
parents envisaged, I am
sure they are still
proud of me."
Brexit is the great national
crisis of our
times. The UK
40-year obsession with
EU is driving us all
2017 November 30
US vs NK
North Korea has tested an ICBM that could
reach anywhere in the continental United States.
Hwasong-15 adds a powerful new tool to the NK arsenal. Japanese
defensive missiles would have been ineffective against it. US
defense secretary James Mattis says North Korea can now hit
everywhere in the world.
SK president Moon Jae In: "We must
stop a situation where North Korea miscalculates and threatens us
with nuclear weapons, or where the United States considers a
Trump: "This situation will be handled!"
UK vs Ireland
The ramifications of Brexit for Northern
Ireland have finally become nightly news. Taoiseach Leo Varadkar
brought the issue back to the fore when he expressed concern and
frustration over how the UK team is failing to deal with it. While
insisting there will be no hard border, the UK has flatly refused to
compromise on any of the measures, such as customs or immigration,
that would make anything but a hard border possible.
to present documents to armed men just so we can commute to work,
visit neighbours, or access everyday amenities, would be a wildly
impractical thing to demand of law-abiding citizens. The severity of
the situation may best be demonstrated by the Taoiseach having said
anything at all. He knows Irish reunification would likely prove
even more expensive than militarising the entire land border after a
Meghan Markle — half black, American,
divorced, actress — was an unlikely candidate to join the House of
Interracial marriages are on the rise in Britain. In
this sense, Harry and Meghan are following, not leading. What is
more intriguing is the question of whether more people of color will
come to feel they have a stake in the UK monarchy.
been some racist responses to the announcement. The prince has made
a clear statement against those prejudices by refusing to allow them
to affect his personal choices. He has made the royals seem more in
touch with the public.
Harry and Meghan drama should not distract us from the fact that the
monarchy is an integral part of an increasingly anachronistic
British political establishment.
2017 November 29
Physicists are looking for a more
fundamental quantum theory to replace general relativity. M-theory
could offer this deeper description. Its mathematical structure
incorporates all five versions of string theory, which connect to
each other through dualities. The string theories are also
mathematically dual to quantum field theories.
frequently answer questions that are otherwise out of reach. There
are dualities between a gauge theory and another gauge theory, or
between a string theory for weak coupling and a string theory for
strong coupling. The AdS/CFT duality between a gauge theory and a
gravitational description gave people new insights.
AdS/CFT duality connects a theory of gravity in anti-de Sitter space
to an equivalent QFT describing its gravity-free boundary.
Everything there is to know about AdS space is encoded in quantum
interactions between particles on the lower-dimensional boundary.
AdS/CFT gives physicists a holographic understanding of the quantum
nature of gravity.
Dualities in math can sometimes be
interpreted physically as consequences of dualities between two
QFTs. Imagine a web of different relationships, where the same
physics has different descriptions, revealing different properties.
In the simplest case, two descriptions might be enough, but in a
more complicated example there might be many.
QFT was constructed by starting with a classical smooth field and
then quantizing it. But that description misses a lot of things that
happen. And the same quantum theory can come from different
classical theories. Perhaps a better formulation of QFT would make
The physics in QFT and string theory has
a lot of mathematical secrets in it. It was thought that interacting
QFT existed in 4D. But the string dualities show that QFTs exist in
5D and 6D.
A (2,0) QFT describing particles in 6D is dual to
M-theory describing strings and gravity in 7D AdS space. In terms of
conventional QFT without gravity, there is nothing quite like the
(2,0) theory above 6D. You can deduce a lot from it about what
happens in lower dimensions. But the (2,0) theory has no reasonable
classical starting point. Maybe the continuum is wrong for
AR I say all good
physics is discrete. The continuum emerges.
2017 November 28
●● Thus man is
definitely master of the woman
number one on the checklist for children in a library book at an
Islamic school in the UK.
Ofsted inspectors uncovered a dossier
of such material on recent visits to faith-based institutions.
Government ministers appear to be funding promotion of the idea that
girls are inferior to boys.
The schoolbook "Women Who Deserve
to Go to Hell" lists women who show ingratitude to their husband,
have high ambitions, or are mischievous and a trial for men.
●● In the beginning of
the 20th century, a movement for the freedom of women was launched
with the basic objective of driving women towards aberrant ways
contrasted the "noble woman of the East" who protects her modesty by
wearing a veil and the "internally torn woman of the West" who
"leaves her home to knock about aimlessly in cinemas and cafés" and
●● The wife is not
allowed to refuse sex to her husband or leave the house where she
without his permission
●● The man by way of
correction can also beat her
write answers reflecting the teaching:
— Women have a
responsibility only to bear children and bring them up as Muslims
— Men should be protectors of women
— Men are physically stronger
and women are emotionally weaker
●● Men are stronger and
can work full time since they don't need to look after the children
●● Men should earn more
as they have families to support
There are 177
Muslim schools in England, 29 of them funded by the state. Ofsted
has inspected 139 independent Islamic schools since 2015 and rated
79 less than good. A growing number of illegal unregistered schools
are teaching children in a totally unregulated setting.
AR We must fight against this stuff:
Why fund faith schools?
2017 November 27
Religions offer membership. They fill the void in
the heart with the mystical presence of the group, and if they do
not provide this benefit they will wither and die. A religion
protects itself from rival groups and the heresies that promote
University students say distinctions associated with
their inherited culture should be rejected. Non-discrimination is
the orthodoxy of our day. This orthodoxy is as determined to silence
the heretic as any established religion.
Truth arises by an
invisible hand from our many errors, and both error and truth must
be permitted if the process is to work. The academic world today is
losing all sense of its role as guardian of the intellectual life.
Diversity of opinion has been steadily eroded.
in which the truth can be sought without censorship, and without
penalties imposed on those who disagree with the prevailing
orthodoxy, is a social benefit. A religion at least closes the mind
around a real moral community.
"A powerful university cartel
is interwoven with parts of the establishment and cares little about
its students, who many academics view as an inconvenience. The
universities are just focused on the money."
"This is the reality young people are faced with today: They
fork out upwards of £27,000 to go to university, only to be told
they have little to no job prospects. They move to London for a
career, only to pay an average rent upwards of £1000. They're
charged by estate agents to leave a property, and they're charged
renewal fees when they sign on for another year."
students are still at university, their debt pile grows at an
interest rate above 6%, which officials at the Department for
Education have accurately described as 'bonkers'. The government's
unusual methodology for calculating interest increases lifetime
repayments by £40,000 for higher earners, according to analysis by
the Institute for Fiscal Studies, compared with a system in which no
interest accrues beyond consumer price inflation."
In 1817, a man was born. He became a social
justice visionary, a mystic revolutionary, and a religious leader.
He was given the title Baha'u'llah — The Glory of God — and founded
the Baha'i faith.
The revolutionary writings of Baha'u'llah
addressed the largest social problems of the day. He taught that
women are equal to men in every way, have the same rights, and
should be empowered through education. He taught the elimination of
racial prejudice and the importance of social justice at a time when
the brown and black races were considered less than human.
Baha'u'llah wrote at length about how he was the most recent
messenger from God in a great linked chain of luminous souls that
included Krishna, Abraham, Buddha, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad. He
spoke of the changeless faith of God, eternal in the past, eternal
in the future: "Glory not in this that you love your country. Glory
rather in this that you love mankind."
2017 November 26
Darkest Hour stars Gary Oldman as Winston
Churchill. Directed by Joe Wright, the movie is set in May 1940 as
Churchill faces an existential crisis: accept a negotiated peace
treaty with Nazi Germany or fight on against seemingly impossible
International Churchill Society executive director
Michael Bishop: "Churchill remains a great hero in the US. Americans
tend to focus exclusively on his leadership in world war two and
know less about other aspects of his career. This has been an
especially fraught period in American political history and I've
noticed near constant references to Churchill in columns and op-eds
over the past year."
In 2013, when a bronze bust of Churchill
was unveiled at the US Capitol, John Boehner, leader of the House
Republicans, declared: "This is one of history's true love stories:
between a great statesman and a nation he called the Great
A Fearsome Churchill
is a lively, provocative historical drama that runs on its own
nonstop creative fire. Winston Churchill, at 66, is a lion who's definitely
not ready for winter.
Though the evacuation of British
soldiers on the beaches of Dunkirk will change the course of the
war, no one knew that for sure. We see almost nothing of the
Operation Dynamo action, which makes Christopher Nolan's
Dunkirk the perfect companion piece to Wright's interior drama.
Gary Oldman delivers Churchill's famous radio
speech ("We shall fight them on the beaches") with all the
rhetorical thunder it requires. The victory of Darkest Hour as a
film is not just to hear the words repeated, but to discover the
flawed human being who carved those words out of the dark night of
his own soul.
2017 November 25
The Democratic Unionist Party holds the
balance of power at Westminster and will block any Brexit deal for
Northern Ireland that could decouple the region from the rest of the
UK. DUP leader Arlene Foster said the DUP will not accept special
laws in Northern Ireland to mirror EU regulations.
“(The DUP will) not support any arrangements that create barriers to
trade between Northern Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom or
any suggestion that Northern Ireland, unlike the rest of the UK,
will have to mirror European regulations .. The economic reality for
our economy is that our most important trading relationship is with
the rest of the United Kingdom and we will do nothing that puts that
at risk in any way.”
AR EU says
no Brexit or a hard border in Ireland. DUP says Brexit and no
border. Who will win?
The British economy has big structural
problems that need to be fixed. Workers have become too powerless
relative to company bosses.
We will end up with a universal
basic income. The natural tendency of the economy at the moment is
to widen income and wealth disparities. In those circumstances, and
particularly when you consider the rise of robots and AI, it is hard
to think of any alternative but guaranteeing some kind of universal
Parliament has become a depressing place to go.
The conversations on what kind of Brexit we want are really nasty.
AR The UK needs a healthier economy.
Brexit will damage its economy. Go figure.
UK defence secretary Gavin Williamson is said to have been
shocked at proposed cuts to the armed forces unless he can find £2
billion a year in savings. The funding crisis gripping UK armed
forces is an existential threat to their ability to remain in the
top tier of military powers.
For years, the navy and the air
force have raided army coffers to fund their aircraft carriers, fast
jets, and submarines. The army has been cut to fewer than 78,000.
Soldiers are fed up with cuts to training, travel and live
ammunition for exercises, while they ride in worn-out old vehicles
and live in barracks with broken heating and leaky roofs.
proposal to delay or reduce a planned upgrade of 227 ageing
Challenger 2 tanks and 480 Warrior fighting vehicles and to reduce a
£3.5 billion order for a new generation of 589 Ajax mini tanks would
devastate military capability. On the table too are cuts to the
marines, the navy, and the air force.
An extra £600 million
needed for the Trident program this year will impact the rest of the
military. Any cost hikes for new military hardware lead to cuts in
funds for soldier training, accommodation, wages, and other
personnel costs. UK armed forces face £20 billion of cuts over the
AR If the UK
abandons Trident, the cash adds up.
2017 November 24
Brexit — Injustice
Behind closed doors Theresa May and her chief of staff Nick
Timothy committed the government to pulling out of all aspects of
European Court of Justice jurisdiction after Brexit. No civil
servants were consulted and the cabinet did not authorise the move,
yet it was announced as government policy. Their decision has since
resulted in a horrible legal quagmire that has yet to be resolved.
The Times reports ministers still do not
grasp the complexities of leaving the EU, said the British judge on
the ECJ Ian Forrester, who also questioned the quality of
politicians in Westminster.
This is monstrous. May and Timothy acted like legal dilettantes. If they
had any idea of the true cost (both economic and political) of this
decision to go British and insult other Europeans, they should have
resiled from their policy.
If Brits are so intent on going British in all
possible ways, they should ban foreign cars, ban foreign books and
imported food and clothing, expel all foreigners from the British Isles, close the
airports and the ports — and prepare massively reinforced
penitential and psychiatric facilities for all the victims of the
new Fortress UK policy.
British is not best for the best
things in life. The greatest goods of civilization, such as truth
and justice, have no national dependencies. Their pursuit in such
disciplines as science and law differ nationally only in relatively
superficial respects, not in the essential constraints facing all
humans who engage with them.
The European Court of Justice is
no more a kangaroo court than are the highest British courts. Any
suggestion that the justice it dispenses is of lesser quality than
that of British courts must be firmly rejected.
2017 November 23
The economic case for ever closer union in Europe
is clear, but it has proved difficult to sell to the general public.
Hungary, Poland, and the UK are the most troublesome EU member
states in this regard. Europhobia is growing in all three.
Common to Britain, Hungary, and Poland are domestic populist
movements and parties that have created successful anti-EU
narratives, harking back to nationalist symbols and myths, and
discarding statistics and rational thinking from their debates.
Without strong grassroots support, there can be no deeper
economic or political integration in Europe. Imposition of grand
projects by a governing elite will lead to backlashes. The EU needs
to develop a counter-narrative to nationalism.
Germany must choose between a new election
and a minority government. This is an opportunity for leaders in
Germany and the West. The last few years have shown that few are
ready to push the liberal order to breaking point.
of Western elites after Trump and Brexit arises from a refusal to
take responsibility for foreign policy failures, to admit their
utopianism was oversold, and to reckon with the social decay and
spiritual crisis shadowing their dream.
All the agitation
suggests a basic deficiency of elite imagination that could bring
down the liberal order. What can save the liberal order is the
successful integration of concerns that its leaders have dismissed
or ignored back into normal political debate.
cease to pursue ever further political centralization by
undemocratic means, break up the intellectual cartels that control
the commanding heights of culture, and accept that the days of
immigration open doors are over.
The consequences of the Brexit vote are
starting to be felt. EU chief negotiator Michel Barnier confirms
that British banks are set to lose their EU passport, and the
European Banking Authority and the European Medicines Agency will
move out of London.
The UK economy has not collapsed. The GDP
is rising and the unemployment rate is low. But the rate of GDP
growth has fallen and inflation has risen, due to a fall in the
value of the pound. Brexit has already cost each British household
an estimated £600.
Theresa May and her government offer no
credible path to prosperity after Brexit and have made barely any
progress in negotiating the terms of Brexit in time for March 2019.
So May wants to push Brexit back to 2021 and abide by all the EU
rules during the transition period.
EU president Donald Tusk
says Britain must still make concessions in a number of areas,
including the settlement of its financial obligations to the EU, the
legal protections afforded EU citizens in the UK, and the future of
the border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.
Boris Johnson and Michael Gove want to turn Brexit Britain into
a European version of Singapore or Hong Kong during the days of
British colonial rule. But the EU will do all it can to stop the UK
letting big companies that operate in Europe avoid EU taxes and
2017 November 22
A Grand Unified Theory
Just after the big bang, there was one
superforce. As the universe cooled, this force split into two, then
three, and then the four forces we know today. A grand unified
theory (GUT) combines all but gravity into one force.
Electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force become one electroweak
force at energies of about 100 GeV, taking us back to about a
picosecond after the big bang. At 10^-36 s ABB, the electroweak and
strong nuclear force should be one force. A new GUT based on SU(5)
SU(5) is based on the idea that at grand
unification energies all the particles are represented by
mathematical structures that can be thought of as pentagons and
decagons. For example, each side of the pentagon represents either a
quark or a lepton, but the sides are symmetrical. This symmetry
breaks only when the universe cools.
predicted an extra interaction between quarks and leptons that made
protons liable to decay. But experiments put the lifetime of a
proton at more than 10^34 years. So that form of SU(5) was wrong.
Theories that predict longer proton lifetimes are far more
complicated. For example, supersymmetry doubles the number of known
particles. But experiments see no evidence of supersymmetry.
The new GUT adds two structures to SU(5), one with 40 sides and
another with 50 sides, to represent heavy fields. These help unify
the electroweak and strong nuclear forces and prevent the proton
from decaying, all without resorting to supersymmetry. The next step
is to explain the mass of the Higgs boson.
The Vela Supercluster
The Local Group of galaxies — a collection
that includes the Milky Way, Andromeda, and a few dozen smaller
galactic companions — moves at about 600 km/s relative to the cosmic
microwave background. So far astronomers can account
for about 450 to 500 km/s of the motion.
Supercluster is a recently discovered supercluster of galaxies
spanning 300 million light years that might account for the rest.
Dust and stars in the densest part of the Milky Way disk block out
its light in optical and infrared wavelengths, but radio waves can
pierce the disk.
Atomic hydrogen is made of a single proton
and an electron, whose spins can line up parallel or antiparallel.
Occasionally a spin flips — switching a parallel atom to
antiparallel — and the atom releases a radio photon. A sensitive
radio survey of this neutral hydrogen gas can locate thousands of
galaxies and reveal structures that lie behind the Milky Way disk.
The MeerKAT radio telescope will be more sensitive than any
other radio telescope on Earth. Its 64 antenna dishes should be
operating by early 2018. Renée Kraan-Korteweg and her team, who
discovered the Vela Supercluster, are hoping for time on the array.
Hélène Courtois and her team taking a different approach to
mapping Vela. In certain areas of the sky, galaxies migrate toward a
common point. Her team is looking for the boundaries where matter
flows toward one basin or another.
The two teams are now
collaborating on a map of Vela.
Milky Way as
seen by ESA spacecraft Gaia
Atlas does backflip
SpotMini — a dog?
Leonardo da Vinci
First Space Nation
DUBAI AIRSHOW 2017
£1 = $1.31
€1 = £0.89
Airship on Venus
"Europe must be white"
"Anarchy in the UK has come
about because Brexit has
country. There is
no definite will of the people,
refuse to acknowledge
each other's reality."
2017 November 21
Brexit — Transition
Brexit is a traumatic experience for
many. But there is no excuse for clinging on to delusions, such as
the prediction that Brexit will be revoked. After passing the EU
(Notification of Withdrawal) Act this year, the UK parliament has no
tools left to engineer a reversal.
The British government can
either revoke the decision to leave the single market and the
customs unions or accept a standard trade agreement similar to the
one that the EU recently concluded with Canada, with a hard border
between Northern Ireland and the Republic.
Leaving the EU
renders the UK business model obsolete. The UK participated in the
EU single market but opted out of other policy areas such as the
euro. The City of London has operated as the financial center of a
monetary union the UK had no intention of joining.
The UK has
an old-fashioned rentier economy. Those with property assets, final
salary pension schemes, and inherited wealth benefited at the
expense of a growing underclass. After Brexit, that model will no
longer be viable.
To make the best of Brexit, the UK will
need to embrace a more entrepreneurial and innovative economy. The
culture will need to be more inclusive and meritocratic. Brexit will
be the end of feudal financial capitalism.
AR The UK model took a mortal hit in
2008. Brexit is a death cramp.
Brexit — Dreamers
The lines are hardening in British
politics. The choice is between a full Brexit or no Brexit at all.
And caught in the middle is Theresa May.
The British business
community is losing patience and has demanded a plan by the end of
the year. Most Leavers accept that Brexit might cause significant
damage to the economy.
Many say that if the British public
had known in June 2016 what they know now, they would never
have voted for Brexit. A fifth of Remainers would be happy to see
Brexit end in chaos.
nous le déluge —
2017 November 20
Germany — Jamaika Talks Fail
● Groko (CDU—SPD form new
● Minority government (CDU
goes it alone)
● New elections (Angela Merkel
Germany — Taboo Theme
Timothy Garton Ash
Alternative for Deutschland (AfD)
leaders denounce Angela Merkel for opening German frontiers in
September 2015 to massed refugees. The AfD scores best in the
territory of the former German Democratic Republic. There is a
striking inverse correlation between the number of immigrants (or
people of migrant origin) in an area and the populist vote.
The collective psychology of this East German vote includes the
poisonous legacy of a society behind the Berlin Wall that was
anything but open and multicultural. They see Muslim foreigners
welcomed in Germany with open arms and getting everything for
nothing. The knowledge that everything includes generous welfare
provisions only sharpens the resentment.
Germany as a whole
is doing well economically. The AfD gathers the discontented from
every walk of life, but those who predominate in its ranks are men
of the educated upper middle class. This distinguishes German
populism from many other populisms.
Götz Kubitschek played a
big part in the development of the AfD. He helped promote the party
career of Björn Höcke, whose plangent rhetoric of cultural pessimism
and völkisch nationalism would have been entirely at home in the
Weimar Republic. Höcke once said that for the first time in a
thousand years the question arises of the end of Germany.
Kubitschek published a book by Rolf Peter Sieferle called
Germania. On July 20, 2017, the Spiegel nonfiction best-seller list
on Amazon left a gap in sixth place, until the following books were
silently lifted up a place. The real number six was Finis Germania.
The Spiegel editors had censored their list — but the effect of
their decision was that even more people bought the book.
Sieferle said Germany had frozen its Nazi past, and Auschwitz, into
a myth or a state religion in which the Germans are forever the
negative chosen people and the Jews the positive chosen people.
Subjecting Sieferle to the taboo treatment supports his contention
that his theme is beyond the realm of rational debate.
2017 World Toilet Day
Zimbabwe president Robert Mugabe sacked from
party, resigning from office.
Our universe is a bubble in a cosmic ocean.
Beyond what we can see is more of everything, for more light years
than we can count. Innumerably many universes like ours pop up in
the ocean. These universes expand, but the ocean expands far more
quickly, driving them apart from each other.
The farther away in space we look, the farther back in time we
look too. At the limit, beyond the first stars, all we can see is
the leftover glow from the big bang. This is our bubble universe.
Before the big bang that blew our bubble, cosmic inflation
expanded the ocean exponentially. The oceanic quantum field decays
from an unstable high-energy state to a stable low-energy state. The
decay creates big bangs and bubble universes of all possible kinds.
Eternal inflation forms separate bubbles endlessly in an
infinite ocean. The whole bubble bath is the multiverse.
The center of our Milky Way produces much
more gamma radiation than we expected. Highly energetic gamma
rays appear to be coming from all across the galactic plane — and
more antimatter streams through the galaxy than we expected.
Recent studies suggest pulsars can explain these anomalies.
Researchers divided the region of the sky covering the galactic
center into numerous pixels and measured the gamma ray fluctuations
in each pixel. The variations suggest the signals come from many
It seems the abundance of positrons in the
galaxy may also be due to pulsars. Pulsars generate huge magnetic
fields that spin along with them and generate electric fields that
pull electrons into space and accelerate them. As the electrons
spiral out, they emit gamma rays. Some of this radiation is
energetic enough to create pairs of electrons and positrons.
Two nearby pulsars, Geminga and Monogem, emit not only gamma rays
directly but also highly energetic gamma rays that appear to form
halos around them. Throughout this halo, electrons coming from the
pulsar collide with photons from ambient starlight and transfer huge
amounts of energy to them. Geminga converts 8%—27% of its energy to
electrons and positrons. Monogem converts twice as much.
Pulsars produce a tremendous amount of antimatter within our galaxy.
2017 November 18
Brexit — Transition To Tyranny
Brexit means abandoning an association
based on equal standing and exposing ourselves to coercion by other
nations. Our relationship with the United States is likely to look
like that of servant and master. We will remove ourselves from a
regime in which we have full rights and full representation, and
enter one in which we have little of either.
In the UK,
almost every cultural reference point is poorly defined, weak and
contested. British public services have all been gutted, disciplined
and undermined by those who assert their patriotism.
enabling state is allowed to wither, what remains is the
authoritarian state. As the enabling state shrinks, the flags must
be unfurled, the national anthem played, schoolchildren taught their
kings and queens, and elaborate pieties offered to dead soldiers.
National pride becomes toxic.
This is the Britizen Jon scenario.
Lord Adonis: "What was clear from my
meetings in Brussels is that they desperately want us to stay.
I didn't meet a single person who thought that the EU would be
better off without us."
Michael Heseltine: "I simply can't
contemplate with equanimity the idea of the president of the United
States, the prime minister of India, the president of China, flying
into Berlin, Paris, to discuss major international events hosted by
the European Union, with Britain waiting to be told what the
communiqué says. It is about influence and power and top tables."
Peter Mandelson: "To compete with the EU, we will be led
inexorably down the path of a less taxed, less regulated business
environment. The economy may be more globalised, in reality more
American, but the public will become less protected."
Emmanuel Macron: "The door, of course, is still open as long as
Brexit negotiations have not been concluded."
"It is in fact up to London how this will end, with a good deal, no
deal or no Brexit."
1 Revoke Article 50
2 Extend negotiations
3 Vote in parliament
4 Hold general election or second
2017 November 17
Saudi Arabia Versus Iran
Saudi Arabia has found a new purpose in
recent years — to check Iranian influence. The ruthless ambition of
Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman radiates across the Mideast. Saudi
foreign and security policy has gone into overdrive:
intervention in Yemen has been costly and inconclusive. It could
lead to the transformation of the Houthi movement into something
akin to Hezbollah — but much closer to Saudi borders.
Saudi blockade of Qatar has been more successful. The effort to tame
that country has worked and the crisis has now been put on the back
burner of international diplomacy.
● The latest Saudi
venture in Lebanon is also likely to backfire. The forced
resignation as prime minister and probable house arrest of Saad
Hariri plays into the hands of Iran and Hezbollah.
Mideast balance of power is determined in Syria and Iraq, where Iran
is well ahead. Iran has shown that it will be there for its friends
and allies in good and bad times. Saudi Arabia has not.
Brexit — Shipwreck
British politics is close to meltdown. The UK
economy suffers from deep weaknesses. Brexit is likely to expose
The aftermath of the financial crisis has been
devastating. A generational divide has opened up and the UK economy
is the most regionally divided in Europe. GDP per head has only
regained pre-crisis levels in London and the southeast.
employment looks good but part-time employment is relatively high
and various categories of insecure work have greatly increased. Pay
at the top has exploded: 30 years ago, company chief executives were
paid on average about 20 times the salary of the average worker. The
ratio is now about 150 times.
UK productivity per hours
worked is among the lowest for high-income countries and has
flatlined since the crisis. UK investment is weak by the standards
of comparable countries and has tended to fall as a share of GDP for
This is not a vigorous and healthy economy. It
is absurd to suggest otherwise. Beware a shipwreck.
AR Shipwreck is the metaphor in
SAP HANA and Hibernate
Since SAP was founded in 1972, developers
have been at the heart of our success. SAP believes openness is a
fundamental requirement to attract and engage with developers. Open
source frameworks play a crucial role in accelerating innovation.
SAP supports open source foundations and initiatives including
Apache, Eclipse, Node.js, OpenStack, Cloud Foundry — and now
Hibernate, a suite of open source projects from Red Hat that provide
simplified data persistence for relational databases and domain
models. The flagship Hibernate project is its object/relational
mapping framework for Java developers.
recognized SAP as a leader in the magic quadrant for operational
data management systems.
Schneiss and I were colleagues in the SAP HANA team.
Work and Play
Zen master Alan Watts taught us to experience
things as they are here and now.
Watts: "You are involved by
and large in a very strange business system which divides your day
into work and play. Work is something that everybody does and you
get paid to do it because .. it is so abominable and boring .. And
the object of making money is to .. buy pleasure."
concept of sacrificing time for money is a cultural construct.
Choice is essential for humans to feel motivated and in control, and
our calling certain commitments work strips choice away.
Humans are playful by nature. We consider play enjoyable. We choose
to focus our attention on it, we strive to get the most out of it,
and if we do it well, we get lost in a world of joy and awe.
Alan Watts said we forget that the boundary between work and play is
illusory. Nothing in the world is inherently interesting. Things are
interesting because we make them interesting.
There is no
reason not to enjoy work. It need not be the opposite of play.
2017 November 16
Masters of the Universe
Eight of the world's most highly valued
companies are technology businesses. Their combined market
capitalisation is $4.7 trillion, 30% of the combined market cap of
all the rest in the world's 100 most valuable firms. The top 5
(Apple, Alphabet, Microsoft, Amazon, Facebook) are US companies,
together worth over $3.3 trillion.
The most highly valued
European tech company is SAP, with a market cap of $135 billion,
placed 60 in the top 100. Apple has a book value of $134 billion but
a market valuation close to $900 billion. The difference reflects an
expectation of enduring monopoly profits resulting from innovation
and economies of scale.
Apple has total assets of $375
billion but fixed assets of $34 billion. The company sees no
profitable way to invest its huge profits in its business. It is now
an investment fund attached to an innovation machine. A lower
corporate tax rate will not raise its investment. Territorial taxes
are defective in taxing global technology companies.
are vital to a free and democratic society. Google and Facebook are
expected to earn 63% of all US digital advertising revenue in 2017.
We consumers have elected the tech titans masters of the universe.
Ross 128b — Earth 2.0?
Ross 128b, just 11 light years away, is
roughly Earth-sized and orbits its parent star once every 9.9 days.
Its surface temperature could lie somewhere between –60 and +20 C,
making it temperate and a possible home for life. It has about 1.35
times Earth mass, hence stronger gravity.
closest Earth-like world to us is Proxima Centauri b, discovered in
2016, which is 4.24 light years away. But Ross 128b may have an
advantage for habitability, as Proxima Centauri is an active star
that emits torrents of UV and X-rays, whereas Ross 128 is a
quiescent red dwarf.
Ross 128b was found by with the ESO
instrument HARPS. The ESO European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT)
opening in 2024 will provide images 16 times sharper than the HST.
It will let us analyze light from Ross 128b for oxygen in its
atmosphere — an indicator for life.
2017 November 15
Beatrice Fihn leads the International
Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, which won the Nobel Peace Prize
for 2017. Her big idea is to treat nuclear weapons not as a power
tool for world peace but as weapons of mass destruction along with
biological weapons and chemical weapons.
Nuclear weapons are
often mentioned in terms that obscure the ugly reality. When
President Trump refers to the "full range" of US military
capabilities, he means nukes. He does not say he is ready to use a
weapon of mass destruction to indiscriminately kill civilians,
irradiate survivors, and so on.
Fihn wants to reframe the
debate and set a clear norm that nuclear weapons are unacceptable.
She says the tensions between the United States and North Korea
remind us that a nuclear war can happen as long as the weapons
exist. Any nuclear war will cause appalling casualties.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was born in 1949 to
oppose the Soviet Union. When the Soviet Union died in 1991, no one
tackled the big questions about its ongoing purpose.
Tayyip Erdogan and Vladimir Putin, the presidents of Turkey and
Russia, are working together. NATO member Turkey plans to spend $2 billion
on a Russian-made S-400 missile system.
NATO Article 5, the clause promising armed solidarity, was activated after 9/11. Since then only
Turkey has sought to invoke it, in 2012, when Ankara tried to draw
NATO into the Syrian conflict.
NATO must tell Erdogan to
respect the contours of alliance policy. If he wants to
subvert NATO in the Mideast, the alliance can live without him.
Erdogan can either leave NATO or try to be a loyal ally.
Putin poses a threat. We should take seriously his fear of
encirclement, end the process of NATO enlargement, and resist
Russian attempts to drive America and Europe apart.
UK Defence Cuts
Former JFC commander General Sir Richard Barrons says UK armed
forces are on the brink of failure unless the government allocates
an additional £2 billion a year.
He says the British army is
20 years out of date. It needs a whole new fleet of armoured
vehicles, new wheeled vehicles, more air defences and drones, and
better cyber capabilities.
Former Royal Navy head Admiral Sir
George Zambellas says the navy is institutionally underfunded and
insufficient to tackle the threat from Russian submarine activity
off the British coast.
Trident and let the rest of the armed forces flourish. Strategic
nukes add little to UK security and serve mainly to give the British
brand a bit more bling.
2017 November 14
The Future of Europe
The Financial Times is launching a new
project to brainstorm about the future of Europe. Professors at six
universities across Europe asked their students to write essays on
the following questions:
● Should the next frontier for
Europe be deeper integration or more power to nation states?
● Would it be wise to
reconsider the four founding freedoms in the EU treaties?
● Is it time to concentrate on
EZ priorities rather than the broader EU27?
● To what extent is German
leadership of Europe desirable or necessary?
The European Union is based on freedom
of movement for goods, services, capital, and people. The four
freedoms are to the EU what golf is to a golf club.
a logic behind the unity of the four freedoms. One can divide the
four freedoms into two categories: economic outputs — goods and
services, and economic inputs — labor and capital. The logic is
based on political reasoning.
UK prime minister Theresa May's
infamous "citizens of nowhere" remark reveals the Brexit mentality.
In the EU you are always a citizen of your home state and of the
union itself, no matter where you live. You are European.
Europe of variable geometry will not be one in which member states
opt in and out of the four freedoms. All member states will accept them. Any new EU-UK association agreement would need to
accept freedom of movement.
prime minister Theresa May needs help to push Brussels for a
breakthrough in Brexit talks. EU leaders fear she may not survive to
deliver on promises made during Brexit negotiations.
secretary David Davis says the government will let MPs vote for the
Brexit deal on offer or for no deal.
Drones Over Venus
work well on Venus. Venus has a thick atmosphere and we could
fly a 200 W drone up at about 50 km where the pressure
is 1 bar and the temperatures around 75 C. At this altitude, our
craft will get about twice the intensity of sunlight it would over
Earth to work with for power.
once every 243 days. Our drone could fly slowly along the equator and stay in daylight. Our drone has an infinite
power source in an adequate atmosphere at an acceptable temperature. With its solar panels on a 40 cm
could fly at a steady 5 km/h around the equator forever.
Winds in the Venusian troposphere gust up to 360 km/h, but they are
minimal at the equator. To explore more, we could configure our drone like an aircraft to use the
wind to stay aloft. Clouds of sulfuric acid could rot the
craft and heat could damage it, but otherwise it looks good.
Northrop Grumman has a concept for a Venus Atmospheric
Maneuverable Platform (VAMP — blog 2015-08-31), a big inflatable
aircraft resembling a B-2 bomber. VAMP would cruise around Venus at
an altitude between 50 and 70 km — much like flying on Earth.
2017 November 13
Mars today is inhospitable to human life.
Its surface is largely dry and arid, its atmosphere thin and toxic,
and its climate frigid. We will need to terraform the planet before
we can colonize it.
Mars has an atmospheric pressure of about
600 Pa, nearly all CO2, with no liquid water and an equilibrium
temperature of 215 K. The Martian north pole is frosted with water
ice and the south pole is capped with CO2 ice.
the southern cap could increase the atmospheric pressure by up to 10
kPa. The current temperature of the south pole is about 142 K,
almost warm enough to do so. We need only warm up the south pole by
about 5.5 K to start the process. Then the temperature and pressure
on Mars will rise to about 225 K and 10 kPa.
Another 30 kPa
of CO2 is frozen in the Martian regolith. Once the south pole CO2 is
sublimated, the regolith CO2 will join it. The atmospheric pressure
will rise to 40 kPa and the equatorial temperature will exceed 273 K
An orbiting mirror could beam down enough
sunlight to start the process if it were 70 km in diameter.
Halocarbon generators could pump out enough greenhouse gas to
accelerate the process.
Once a warm atmospheric blanket is in
place, photosynthetic plants can pump out oxygen. Plants also need
water to survive, but Mars has plenty of frozen water. The plants
will deplete the CO2 and the halocarbons will deplete ozone and
hence raise the surface UV levels, so our colonists will need to
manage the atmosphere.
Terraforming Mars is the first step
in our quest to become an interplanetary species.
Mars Terraformer Transfer (MATT)
The MATT concept uses a
commercial satellite to terraform a region of Mars in 2036, creating
a persistent lake for use by mission crews.
MATT terraforms a
city-sized region for habitation. A satellite shepherd guides a
selected celestial small-body impactor to a selected target site. A
powerful laser provides the shepherding impulse. The laser and other
instruments deflect, analyze, and restructure the small body, over
some years, for optimized impact on Mars.
injects heat into bedrock, producing meltwater for a lake that
persists for thousands of years within the warmed impact site. Here
the challenges for crewed missions are ameliorated. MATT habs can
scale to millions of cubic meters. Treated lake water can cover and
protect underwater domes.
Scaled Mars habs can also house
commercial offices for telerobotic open-pit mining of rare and rare
2017 Remembrance Sunday
Die Vereinigten Staaten von
Amerika haben ihren Führungsanspruch verwirkt. Mit der Wahl von
Donald Trump haben sich eine Krankheit derart verselbstständigt,
dass die vernünftigen Kräfte in den USA sie nicht mehr ausgleichen
können. Diese Analyse ist ebenso verwegen wie die Vorstellung, dass
stattdessen Europa weltpolitisch führen sollen.
Elitenverachtung, Misstrauen in Institutionen und Gewaltenteilung,
eine von Feindbildern getriebene Spaltung der Gesellschaft, die
Sehnsucht nach Abschottung und Schutz vor dem kulturell, religiös
oder ethnisch Anderen — damit ist eine innerwestliche Krise
beschrieben, nicht bloß eine inneramerikanische.
eine fast 250 Jahre lang gewachsene und widerstandsfähige
Demokratie. Amerikas Gewaltenteilung funktioniert. Die EU, eine
Gruppe aus 28 Staaten, die ausdrücklich kein Superstaat werden will,
kann schwerlich eine Supermacht sein.
Die EU ist ziemlich
stark darin, ihre Stärken zu beschwören, und ziemlich schwach darin,
ihre Schwächen einzugestehen. Das gilt auch für ihre Wirtschaft. Sie
gründet auf Voraussetzungen, die Regierungen selbst nicht schaffen
Weil die amerikanische Neigung zum Exzess derzeit
eher zu- als abnimmt, muss Europa ein stärkeres Gegengewicht bilden.
Aber diese neue Stärke muss sich innerhalb einer Partnerschaft mit
Amerika entfalten. Denn bevor Europa dort ist, ist Trump längst
2017 November 11
When Consciousness Began
Julian Jaynes published
The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
in 1976. It still sells today.
Jaynes: "Consciousness is a
much smaller part of our mental life than we are conscious of .. It
is like asking a flashlight in a dark room to search around for
something that does not have any light shining upon it. The
flashlight, since there is light in whatever direction it turns,
would have to conclude that there is light everywhere. And so
consciousness can seem to pervade all mentality when actually it
does not ..
.. it is perfectly possible that there could have
existed a race of men who spoke, judged, reasoned, solved problems,
indeed did most of the things that we do, but were not conscious at
Jaynes said that until about 3 ky BP, humans relied on
a bicameral mind, with one half speaking to the other in the voice
of the gods to guide on their way. The bicameral mind eventually
broke down as human societies became more complex, and our forebears
awoke with an internal narrative.
Jaynes says the characters
in The Iliad do not look inward or act by choice but only do what
the gods tell them. He suggests the right hemisphere used to be the
source of prompts sent to the left side of the brain. These became
hallucinations that helped guide humans through difficult
The bicameral mind enabled humans to manage in
rigidly hierarchical societies. But around 3 ky BP, stress from
overpopulation, natural disasters, and wars overwhelmed the voices.
The breakdown of the bicameral mind led to a more flexible way of
life. The modern mind was born.
I loved the book. I see it as locating the evolutionary
origin of the architecture of personal autonomy.
Quantum theory says systems before
observation are in a superposition of all possible observable
states. A quantum state vector encodes all allowed outcomes of
measurement and their relative probabilities. A measurement
collapses the state vector to give a unique outcome.
Wigner imagined he was outside a windowless room where his friend
measures a system. She knows what the observed property of the
system is, but he cannot say that the state vector has collapsed
until she tells him the result. Until then, he can only think of her
and her system as forming one big superposition.
solipsism may be logically consistent with quantum mechanics. But we
get an infinite regress: Is he too in a superposition of states
until he relays the result to his other friends?
Brukner imagines that the friend measures the system and collapses
the state vector, producing either outcome A or B, but tells him
only that she sees a definite result, not what it is. He can only
conclude that his friend and her system are in a joint
superposition, even though he knows a measurement has happened.
His friend is in state A or state B, but to him she is in a
superposition of A and B. Both are right, depending on whose point
of view you adopt. In quantum theory there is no privileged
perspective for a third observer to reconcile the viewpoints.
Markus Müller imagines that you observe a system and see state
X. Given that, your chance of seeing another state Y is defined in
algorithmic information theory by representing your experience at
any instant as a string of bits. Your history is a random walk
through the various possible bit strings.
As these random
experiences stack up, the conditional probability of the next bit
string is higher for simpler bit sequences than for complex ones, so
a simple model emerges. Recall that in the kinetic theory of gases
the probability distribution of random configurations of gas
molecules is peaked and simple laws emerge for observable
properties. In quantum theory too, from minimal assumptions you can
recover a world like the one we know.
I explored this view in depth in my book
Mindworlds. More fun
is the movie
What the bleep do we know?
2017 November 10
The End Is Nigh
The next few years will change the status of Britain. The UK
will depart from the EU in March 2019. The Elizabethan era, the
symbol of postwar British stability, may end at much the same time.
For Brexiteers, the EU is a fog that shrouded British glory.
Power once lost is now found. A
new era of national glory and buccaneering global trade will dawn. Britain
will be great again.
Leaving the EU will shrink the UK. A
slow and gradual descent, rather than a singular cataclysm, will see the economy grow slowly rather than vigorously. Investment levels
will remain stubbornly low as investors turn elsewhere. The City of
London will contract.
The next US president will whisper
sweet nothings about the special relationship with Britain. But with no route into the diplomatic chambers of Europe, London
will mean less to Washington.
The end of the
Elizabethan era will see the nation diminished in the name of
The UK will have lost the EU but failed to find
is the mood music of Britizen Jon.
2017 November 9
Brexit — Deadline
Brexit talks resume today in Brussels.
Without sufficient progress this month on the divorce settlement,
the EU may be unable to discuss transition talks at its summit in
The European Parliament issued a blunt
warning over citizen rights. Its demands include a cost-free
and near-unconditional settled-status application process for 3
million EU nationals in Britain, which would only begin once a
transition period ends. Such demands go far beyond what the UK has
offered, but MEPs can veto the final divorce deal.
Germany are urging the EU27 to stand firm. EU chief negotiator
Michel Barnier was unable to persuade them to let transition talks
begin in parallel to divorce talks.
Brexit — Taxation
Why did rich Brits campaign so hard for
In 2015, Britain rejected EU plans to combat tax
avoidance by global multinationals. Britain had built a corporate
tax haven for multinationals that included slashing corporation tax
from 28% to 20% and introducing favorable tax regimes for
multinationals with offshore financing subsidiaries.
in 2015, British MEPs voted against EU plans to require companies to
report where they make their profits and pay taxes. The plans
included sanctions against countries or territories worldwide that
fail to curb tax evasion. The EU pushed ahead — its rules take
effect in 2019.
A hard Brexit frees the UK from these rules.
Brexit — Endgame
European Union leaders are preparing for the fall of Theresa May
before the new year, as the prime minister lost her second cabinet
minister in a week.
Fears are growing in Brussels that the
instability of her government raises the risk of a change of
leadership or elections leading to a Labour victory.
options are under consideration in Brussels, including a disorderly
Brexit or a reversal of the Brexit decision after new elections.
Trump — Survival
Donald Trump has not actually carried out most
of his lunatic campaign rhetoric. His supporters can argue that he
is more moderate in practice than his rhetoric would suggest. The
more compelling explanation for his failure to make good on his
1 Trump doesn't really
believe in much beyond his own awesomeness. He didn't mean a lot of
he said — it was just something to rouse
the rubes at rallies.
2 Trump has
been utterly incompetent. Even if he wants to achieve more of his
agenda, he has no
idea how to do it. The only
things he has accomplished are those he can do by executive order.
3 Trump has staffed his
administration with people based largely on superficial criteria. As
he is surrounded by aides who view
him as a screwball to be contained, not a sage to be followed.
The past year has dispelled naive hopes that Trump would grow in
office or become more presidential. He is still an ignorant,
petulant, unethical, avaricious, conspiratorial, nasty, shameless,
Alice and Bob talk
Wormhole with octopus
My sister in Oregon
Jacob Rees-Mogg MP
Sir Robert Syms MP
with PCA political deputy
chair Viv Allen
with PCA chair Peter Adams
his wife Brenda
around a neutron star
2017 November 8
Priti Patel Exits
Priti Patel has resigned as UK international
development secretary amid controversy over her meetings with
ER = EPR
Juan Maldacena conjectures that
wormholes between distant points in spacetime — ER bridges — are
equivalent to entangled quantum particles — EPR pairs. This is ER =
Black holes evaporate via Hawking radiation. But the
idea that a dying black hole erases all record of everything that
went into it violates the principle of unitarity in quantum theory,
which holds that information is never lost when particles interact.
Given unitarity, the information must escape.
quantum gravity drew Maldacena to the ER = EPR idea. The implied
relationship between tunnels in spacetime and quantum entanglement
posed by ER = EPR resonates with the idea that space is essentially
stitched into existence by quantum entanglement.
The ER = EPR
idea can be extended by equating a traversable wormhole and quantum
teleportation. If a traversable wormhole connects a parent black
hole and a daughter black hole formed from half of the Hawking
radiation given off by the parent as it evaporates, the two systems
are entangled — information from the parent worms its way out of the
Let Alice and Bob have entangled quantum particles
a and b, respectively. Alice wants to teleport a qubit q to Bob, so
she prepares a combined state of q and a, measures that combined
state (reducing it to 1 or 0), and sends the result of this
measurement to Bob. He can then use this as a key for operating on b
in a way that recreates the state q, in effect teleporting q.
Say Alice throws qubit q into black hole A. She then measures a
bit of its Hawking radiation, a, and tells Bob the result through
the external universe. Bob uses this knowledge to operate on b, a
Hawking particle from black hole B. Bob reconstructs q, which
appears to pop out of B, a perfect match for the particle that fell
into A. Information is recovered from black holes.
Traversable wormholes cannot be used as time machines. Anything that
goes through the wormhole has to wait for Alice to talk to Bob in
the outside universe before it can exit B, so the wormhole offers no
superluminal boost that could be exploited for time travel.
Traversable wormholes seem to be permitted in nature as long as they
offer no speed advantage.
The new work suggests there is no
firewall at black hole horizons. The interior and exterior of the
black hole are two complementary ways of looking at the same system.
An observer passing across a black hole horizon would notice nothing
Unitarity is preserved because whatever falls into
one black hole exits the other as Hawking radiation. We can think of
the radiation entangled with the black hole — EPR — as being
connected to the black hole interior by wormholes — ER. A theory of
quantum gravity might imply ER = EPR.
Preamble (Quanta, 2015)
ER = EPR is a shorthand that
joins two ideas proposed by Einstein in 1935. If it is correct, the
ideas form the foundation of spacetime. Leonard Susskind and Juan
Maldacena say quantum entanglement could create the connectivity
that sews space together — without it space would atomize.
The firewall paradox: If a black hole event horizon is a smooth
interface, the particles coming out of the black hole are entangled
with particles falling into the black hole. To conserve information,
the particles coming out must also be entangled with particles that
left long ago and are far out in a cloud of Hawking radiation.
Maximum entanglements are monogamous, between just two particles, so
spacetime inside the throats of black holes cannot be smooth. This
implies a firewall.
Susskind and Maldacena suggest that ER =
EPR implies an octopus wormhole that entangles the interior of the
black hole directly to particles in the expanding cloud.
AR See blog 2017 June 25.
2017 November 7
UK Ruling Class
Britain is almost unique in its
vulnerability to amateurism, scandal, and electoral indecision.
Power is concentrated in national government, its executive branch,
and its prime minister.
An effective government can build a
welfare state, as Labour did after 1945, or free an economy, as the
Conservatives did from 1979. A poor government can ruin everything.
Brexit and the presidency of Donald Trump are parallel
experiments with national sovereignty. But America is designed to
prosper despite its politics. Most mature democracies have codified
balances, this set against that, to limit the reach of mere politics
into the life of the nation.
The British system trusts the
life of the nation to a few offices and prays for worthy occupants.
Without EU membership, which restrains government, that
concentration of power intensifies. Constitutional reform is needed
as a hedge against bad government.
The Paradise Papers
Democracy is rotten in Brexit
Britain. Three myths:
1 The British public is fighting its
— Wrong. The elites are fighting their publics by
denying them revenues for hospitals and schools. Shuttling between
tax havens is an elite sport, and the loser each time is the rest of
society, which sees its tax base shrink.
2 Austerity was the
only correct response to the crisis.
— Wrong. A recent study
that found wealthy Britons have stashed about £300 billion in
offshore tax havens. Tories punish the poor but reward the rich for
fear they will flee offshore. London has more super-rich residents
than any other city.
3 The British public is spoiled by a
surfeit of democracy.
— Wrong. Rich non-dom Brits have the
most say. Tory donor Michael Ashcroft was granted a peerage after
promising to give up his non-dom status, yet he continues to shelter
millions offshore. Telegraph owners Sir David and Sir Frederick
Barclay have their island hideaway of Brecqhou. Daily Mail inheritor
Viscount Rothermere has non-dom status. News Corporation owner
Rupert Murdoch presides over 152 subsidiaries, including 62 in the
British Virgin Islands, 33 in the Caymans, and 15 in Mauritius.
Big Finance and runaway inequality rot democracy.
Watch Amber Rudd
Theresa May calls for a new culture of respect
in public life. But the chaos of the sex scandal will surely hasten
the departure of a prime minister presiding over a party split from
top to bottom over Europe. Although most MPs thought she would
struggle on until after March 2019, many doubt she can survive that
As for who might take over, David Davis once had his
female supporters parading around in T-shirts with "It's DD for me"
emblazoned across their chests. Boris Johnson is a diplomatic
disaster zone. Liam Fox has already resigned once for letting his
best man into meetings. Damian Green may no longer be seen as a safe
pair of hands. Philip Hammond has alienated many with his budget
blunders. Andrea Leadsom has opponents who would walk across hot
coals to stop her becoming prime minister. Priti Patel had to
apologise over unauthorised meetings in Israel. Ruth Davidson cannot
make it to Westminster in time.
Amber Rudd is the one to
The RNA world hypothesis was that life emerged out
of RNA. But RNA would not evolve spontaneously. Both RNA and
proteins must take the form of long, folded chains to work, and the
early Earth would have prevented strings of nucleic or amino acids
from growing long enough.
A protein-folding model treats the
20 amino acids as colored beads: blue hydrophilic beads (polar
monomers) and red hydrophobic ones (nonpolar monomers). A chain of
beads folds along the vertices of a 2D lattice. Which square a bead
occupies depends on how the red beads clump to avoid water.
Permutations of hydrophobic and polar monomers give all possible
red-and-blue necklaces up to a given length. A few per thousand of
these sequences collapse into compact foldable polymer
structures that expose a hydrophobic patch of red beads on their
This patch can serve as a sticky landing pad for
hydrophobic sections of sequences floating by. If a single red bead
and a red-tailed chain land on the hydrophobic patch at the same
time, energy favors the two sequences linking together. The
patch acts as a catalyst for elongating polymers.
A few of
those elongated polymers fold and expose their own hydrophobic
patch. These can form an autocatalytic set to catalyze the formation
of copies of themselves. The number of protein molecules would grow
exponentially. RNA would evolve later.
2017 November 6
Dawn of Life
Ribosomes are molecular machines found
inside every living cell. They read the genetic code contained in
DNA and use it to construct the proteins that build us.
ribosomes differ from those of a lowly bacterium only in the
ornamentation on their outer surface. As evolution progressed, new
species tacked extra bits of RNA to their ribosomes. The common core
is the part of the ribosome that worked in the last universal common
Researchers explored the ribosome by
recognising the insertion fingerprints in its decoration. They
looked further and found ancient traces pointing before LUCA. Every
time they found an addition, they snipped it away, pruning down to
more primitive layers, all the way down.
The most ancient
part of the ribosome is a stretch of RNA that includes the
cradle-resembling region that today links amino acids to form
protein-like chains. This rudimentary ribosome had none of the
precision needed in LUCA. It must have linked amino acids, and
probably whatever other molecules would fit into its cradle, into
short random chains.
As random fragments churned out of the
molecular sausage-maker, a few had a shape that helped them stick to
the ribosomal RNA. The mess of co-evolving RNA and protein fragments
included a range of molecules that self-assembled. Chemical
evolution winnowed through the randomness and selected the
components that clung best together.
Life needs a genetic
code and precise replication of a genome. In modern cells, code from
the central DNA library in the nucleus is copied out to the
ribosomes via messenger RNA. The ribosome binds the mRNA transcripts
and reads them three letters at a time, with each triplet coding for
one amino acid. The specified amino acid is escorted to the ribosome
by a transfer RNA.
In prehistory, the proto-ribosome made a
range of new molecules. Chemical evolution selected mRNA and tRNA
that were better and more precise at their jobs, eventually leading
to the genetic code found in all living things. At last, life had
Modern proteins all contort into intricate 3D shapes
that are essential to their function. For a protein to fold well,
one part of it has to fit tightly against another. As the precursor
molecules co-evolved, they would have selected protein fragments
that were predisposed to fold well.
The proteins associated
with the oldest part of the ribosome show little or no complex
folding. Moving to more recent parts of the ribosome, researchers
see proteins folding first into simple sheets and then into more and
more precise and intricate shapes. The RNA portions of the ribosome
also develop tighter and more stable folding.
When the oldest
part of a ribosome links small molecules into longer chains, the
link is sealed by releasing a water molecule. The first life may
have appeared around the fringes of a pond in conditions alternating
between wet and dry.
2017 November 5
The world's biggest businesses, heads of
state. and global figures in politics, entertainment, and sport who
have sheltered their wealth in secretive tax havens are being
revealed in a leak of over 13 million files obtained by the
Süddeutsche Zeitung. The revelations, for which more than
380 journalists have spent a year combing through decades of data,
Gabriel Zucman: "Tax havens are one of the key
engines of the rise in global inequality."
AR Outlaw the tax regimes in the
"paradise" satellites of the UK economy — Gibraltar, the Cayman
Islands, the British Virgin Islands, the Isle of Man, Jersey and
Guernsey. Demand compliance with mainland law on pain of military
action — such as one Trident warhead per island. If I must pay
UK tax then so should the paradise investors.
2017 November 4
We think of our world as the fruit of a
series of advances: domestication, public order, mass literacy, and
prosperity. We still like to tell a story that starts with
agriculture and the first Mesopotamian city-states, the classical
Greeks and their slaves, and the imperial Romans.
Around 5 ky
BP, droughts in the Fertile Crescent forced foragers to settle in
cities and eat grain to survive. Once a system of labor was in
place, fresh bodies were collected by soldiers in slave raids.
The exploitation machine called civilization was up and running.
Life in cities was probably worse than foraging or herding. City
dwellers ate poorly and they were vulnerable to epidemics. Unless
they were in the ruling class, they had to work not only to feed
themselves and their rulers but also to build palaces and city
Civilization was always linked with barbarism. Tacitus
suggested that German barbarians were more virtuous than settled
Romans. Anglo-Americans often traced their democratic identity to
the liberty of the forest rather than the cities of the
The built world that sustains humanity is so
vast that the infrastructure of civilization outweighs all human
bodies together by a factor of tens of thousands. Without it, global
population would fall to perhaps 200 million, as it was at the
beginning of the Common Era.
As white supremacists marched through
Charlottesville, their banners bore heathen symbols. In Iceland,
Ásatrú high priest Hilmar Hilmarsson looked on with horror.
Ásatrú is the largest heathen religion in Iceland. Based on the
worship of Thor, Odin, Freya, and other ancient deities, its modern
revival started in Reykjavik in 1972. It now has an estimated tens
of thousands of followers worldwide.
In Germany, where Viking
symbols were coopted by the Third Reich, heathens are wary. Karl
Seigfried plans to redact Ásatrú theology to tackle modern issues.
He recalls how Catholics in Latin America created liberation
Ásatrú high priest Hilmarsson says the racist
interpretation of heathenry is a perversion of his faith. He would
like to offer heathens a more compelling vision.
Physics in China
China plans to build an heir to the Large
Hadron Collider. The proposed supercollider would be 55 km in
circumference, twice the size of the LHC, and would define the
frontiers of particle physics for generations.
supercollider is the perfect embodiment of Xi Jinping thought and
the Chinese dream. It is a unique opportunity for China to lead an
entire branch of science.
Authoritarian states breed a
national pride antithetical to the ideals of big science. The
Chinese supercollider project still needs greater international
The LHC fosters collaboration among scientists
and institutions from countries in conflict, but collaborators at
the Chinese supercollider will be subject to political criteria.
Science depends on open access to the internet. The World Wide
Web was invented at CERN in 1989. Future particle physics will run
within the Great Firewall of China.
The success of the
Chinese supercollider will depend on foreign expertise, equipment,
and technology. The particle physics community must set terms for its engagement.
The Quantum Many-Body Problem
Computers show promise at resolving a problem
facing quantum physicists. The behavior of individual electrons is
easy. But once they start interacting with each other, negative
signs appear and the calculations hit an impenetrable mathematical
wall. A mathematical description needs to encode every possible
state that the system could occupy, so its complexity rises
exponentially. This computational wall for entangled particles is
known as the quantum many-body problem.
We can skip the math
and go straight to the science. Deep learning involves training a
computer to recognize patterns by passing data through multiple
layers in a digital network, each of which is coded to search for
specific features. Trained neural networks detect patterns in new
data. If a computer can classify configurations of electrons by
looking at them, then it can maybe do it for any number of
particles. We might get realistic quantum many-body models.
2017 November 3
PCA dinner with Jacob Rees-Mogg MP
UK Defense — Politics
Former head of the British army Richard
Dannatt says Theresa May's decision to make her chief whip the new
defense secretary is not the best choice from a defense point of
view. Lord Dannatt said May had made a political decision to promote
Gavin Williamson because he is a trusted lieutenant.
parliamentary backlash followed the promotion. After Sir Michael
Fallon resigned amid allegations in the Westminster sexual
harassment scandal, other names were in the frame. But Williamson
had worked closely with May and helped stabilize her administration
after the June election.
Brexit — Russia
If the UK Electoral Commission has help from the intelligence
and criminal justice systems, it can ask whether Arron Banks, who
gave the largest donation in British political history to the Brexit
cause, got his millions from Russia.
Brexiteers will ask who
cares if Russia did throw a few roubles into the pot. For them, the
scandal is that the pro-Remain camp had the overwhelming support of
the entire establishment, yet when the British people were finally
given a chance they revolted.
Hot potato: If Russia skewed
the Brexit referendum, do we void the result and vote again?
Bryan W Van Norden
Mainstream Western philosophy is
narrow-minded, unimaginative, and even xenophobic. It used to be
more cosmopolitan. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz said of Chinese
philosophers: "They surpass us .. in practical philosophy, that is,
in the precepts of ethics and politics adapted to the present life
and the use of mortals."
Christian Wolff said
Confucius showed that it was possible to have a system of morality
without basing it on either divine revelation or natural religion.
Conservative Christians had Wolff relieved of his duties and exiled
from Prussia. But he became a hero of the German Enlightenment.
Immanuel Kant, who was notoriously racist, asserted that the
Chinese, Indians, Africans, and Native Americans are congenitally
incapable of philosophy. Contemporary Western philosophers who
follow him take it for granted that there is no Chinese, Indian,
African, or Native American philosophy.
E Moore (1873-1958) was one of the founders of analytic philosophy,
now the dominant tradition in the English-speaking world. When
Indian philosopher Surendra Nath Dasgupta read a paper to a session
of the Aristotelian Society in London, Moore's only comment was: "I
have nothing to offer myself. But I am sure that whatever Dasgupta
says is absolutely false." The audience of British philosophers in
attendance roared with laughter.
Anglo-American analytic (AAA) philosophers are in thrall to
science. National or ethnic qualifiers for the term "science" make
no sense for a true scientist.
2017 November 2
West v China
We in the west will be challenged to keep a
margin of superiority over China without developing an adversarial
relationship. We must see that management of our economy and
politics has been unsatisfactory for many years. We let our
financial system run aground in a crisis, we underinvested in our
future and let a gulf emerge between economic winners and losers,
and we let lies and hatred consume our politics.
Putin v US
Russia-gate will be a critical factor in US
domestic politics in the months to come. The Kremlin says Russia
never messed with the US politics. For Russians the meddling was
neither surprising nor scandalous.
Received wisdom in Moscow
is that Russia can regain its great power status only by confronting
the United States. President Vladimir Putin wants to make Russia an
equal partner with countries like China. From his perspective,
interfering in the US presidential election was a performance
organized mostly for a global public.
Russia is vastly weaker
in most ways than the United States. But the Kremlin believes that
power and weakness are complex concepts and the stronger party can
lose. Russians think he who dares wins.
A document drawn up by staff who work with Conservative MPs
accuses 40 of the MPs of sexual misconduct and harassment. The
spreadsheet of shame deserves a haiku:
Please keep your handsies
Entirely to yourselfies
It is not that hard
2017 November 1
Neutron Star Mergers
Neutron star mergers tell us a lot.
Combining the gravitational and electromagnetic signals from the
recently detected collision we have a clean way to measure the
In an expanding universe, the farther away
an astronomical object is, the faster it recedes. The
Hubble constant says how much faster. We estimate that galaxies move
away from us at around 70 km/s faster for each additional megaparsec
of distance away from us (a megaparsec is about 31 Zm). To date, the
two best ways of measuring the Hubble constant give different
A high estimate of 73 comes from estimating distance
and velocity for lots of astronomical objects. We measure their
redshift to find their recessional velocity due to cosmic expansion.
We then build a cosmic distance ladder. We start by deducing the
distances to stars in the Milky Way using parallax. Thus we deduce
the brightness of Cepheid stars, which serve as standard candles. We
spot them in nearby galaxies to calculate how far away the galaxies
are. In the galaxies we spot Type Ia supernovas — brighter standard
candles that let us see further out. In 2016, a team known as SH0ES
used this approach to peg the Hubble constant at 73.2, apparently
A low estimate of 68 comes from Planck telescope
data. The Planck team used the cosmic microwave background (CMB)
snapshot depicting pressure waves giving density variations at
different scales known as the CMB power spectrum. The Hubble
constant can be calculated from it. The team made assumptions about
other cosmological parameters to get a value of 67.8, supposedly +/-
The 68/73 discrepancy is still a mystery — but colliding
neutron stars can be standard sirens. They send out spacetime
ripples that are not dimmed by gas or dust. The waves transmit a
clean record of the strength of the collision that lets us infer the
distance to the source. We can also detect EM radiation from the
collisions and use its redshift to determine their recessional
velocity. Divided by distance, this gives the Hubble constant.
From the first collision alone, we calculate the Hubble constant
to be 70, give or take 10. We can improve the accuracy with more
Neutron stars may contain new forms of
matter. A neutron star is the compressed core of a massive star,
with a solar mass squeezed into a ball of radius 10 km. It is the
last stop on the line before a black hole.
A shiny 1—2 cm
veneer of normal atoms — mostly Fe and Si — coats a neutron star.
Below it, the atoms squeeze so close together that their electrons
form a shared sea. Deeper, the protons inside nuclei start turning
into neutrons, which cluster close enough together to overlap.
Nucleons are made up of three quarks. Under immense pressure,
these quarks might form a new state of quark matter. All that extra
energy might go into creating heavier particles that contain not
just up and down quarks but also strange quarks.
neutron stars that rotate quickly, sweeping a radio beam across
Earth with each spin. For pulsars in binary systems, what should be
a constant tick-tock of pulses hitting Earth will vary, betraying
their motion and location in orbit.
Pulsars have been
observed with about twice the solar mass. In theory, they should
collapse into a black hole. Neutron stars stuffed with interacting
quarks could be dense enough, while neutron stars made up only of
nucleons would be too big.
The Neutron Star Interior
Composition Explorer (NICER) is designed to find the size of neutron
stars by watching for hot spots on their surfaces. The experiment
should produce better radius measurements for neutron stars.
In the final second or so of the latest Laser Interferometer
Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) signal, the orbiting
pair of neutron stars started to stretch and squeeze each other,
generating tides that stole energy from their orbits. This made them
collide faster than otherwise.
Astrophysicists are looking
forward to new data from NICER and LIGO.
AR A neutron star mirrored ball — hero
Marx — Engels — Lenin — Stalin
Russia plans to test its new
RS-28 Sarmat ICBM this year.
RS-28 will replace the missile
with NATO name SS-18 Satan.
Weighing 100 Mg and with a
range of 10 Mm, it will carry
16 warheads, defeat
missile defense systems,
and pack enough
destroy an area the size
of Texas or France.
to the idea that
our fellow creatures have the
capacity to feel joy
and to suffer
comes above all from politicians
protecting the cheap methods
used by factory farms.
UK defense secretary
Sir Michael Fallon says
may jeopardize a £4 billion
deal to sell 48 Eurofighter
Typhoon jets to the Saudis
hard Brexit could
wipe almost 10% off GDP in
Ready for it?
2017 October 31
The Red Revolution
Lenin was a man who wanted to turn moral
values on their head. For him, as for Stalin, the dead were just
numbers. Human life counted for nothing next to the goal of a
Lenin was in effect the dictator of Soviet
Russia from 1917 until 1922. The rule of terror took hold in the
Marxist state. Mass killing became the main strategy to put down
Soviet Russia needed control over Ukraine to feed
the Soviet masses. In 1933, while millions died of hunger in
Ukraine, the Soviet Union exported record amounts of Ukrainian
butter and bacon. For Stalin the famine was a success.
the Soviet era, it was human beings who killed each other. Under
Lenin and Stalin, history itself exterminated class enemies. The
Soviet Union has been consigned to the dustbin of history.
Trump — Alt-Reality
President Trump and his media allies are
creating a vast alternate media reality that casts large swaths of
the US government as irredeemably corrupt. Their declared purpose is
to lay the rationale for Trump to pardon his close associates or
shut down the Russia probe.
Trump has recently revisited the idea of trying to remove Robert
Mueller, now Mueller appears to be digging into his finances.
Meanwhile, Stephen Bannon is privately urging Trump to try to get
Republicans to defund the Mueller probe.
dismissed the news of allegations against Paul Manafort and George
Papadopoulos as big nothingburgers. He also revived the fiction that
Hillary Clinton approved a deal for a Russian nuclear agency to gain
access to US uranium extraction rights in exchange for kickbacks,
and the absurd claim that the Clinton campaign colluded with Russia
to interfere in the election.
Hannity accused Mueller of
trying to change the narrative to distract from all this. Trump has
tweeted in support of many of these allegations. His media allies
cite such stories in support of the notion that Mueller should
resign or that Trump should close down the Russia probe.
need to confront the insanity and depravity of all this.
2017 October 30
North Korean Nukes
Can Kim Jong-un control his nukes?
Even if NK laboratories and factories are safe, weapons systems
break down, age, and suffer untold problems. The history of the cold
war is littered with accidents involving nuclear weapons and
incidents that could have sparked nuclear war.
assume that North Korea will invest in the safest designs for its
warheads or missiles. A warhead could detonate by accident. Kim
Jong-un would surely deflect blame by accusing the Americans or
others of sabotage or an attack.
Kim Jong-un will likely keep
all control over nuclear weapons in his hands, but he must delegate
authority in some way. If he lacks reliable communications with his
nuclear systems, then the uncertainty in nuclear operations
We need to make NK nukes safer.
2017 October 29
Nukes in East Asia
The New York Times
North Korean nuclear capabilities have
scrambled military calculations in the region. Both South Korea and
Japan are considering the nuclear option, driven by worry that the
United States might hesitate to defend them. Both countries have the
material and expertise to build a weapon, and all that stops them is
the political risk.
South Korea, president Moon Jae-in opposes nuclear weapons but his
his view is increasingly a minority one. South Korea has a huge
stockpile of spent fuel from which it can extract plutonium, enough
for thousands of bombs, and has a fleet of advanced missiles for
conventional warheads. Many South Koreans say a homegrown nuclear
deterrent could force North Korea back to the bargaining table, but
others say Seoul should ask Washington to redeploy tactical nukes.
In Japan, prime minister Shinzo Abe has campaigned
for a military buildup against the NK threat. Japan has a stockpile
of nuclear material for up to 6,000 weapons and has long-range
missile technology, but would need time to develop communications
and control systems. Nuclear weapons would not be prohibited under
the Japanese Constitution if maintained only for self-defense.
2017 October 28
der Zweite Weltkrieg
Von Michael Salewski
Professor Salewski ist es gelungen, eine
autoritative und detailreiche Geschichte des zweiten Weltkrieges —
die allerdings eher für schon ziemlich versierte Leser geeignet wäre
— innerhalb einer überschaubaren Band zu veröffentlichen.
Voraussetzungen für den Leser sind ..
als PDF (1 S.)
2017 October 27
On 31 October 1517, Martin Luther nailed his
95 theses decrying the practices of the Roman Catholic church to the
door of the castle church in Wittenberg. This kicked off what became
the Protestant Reformation.
Luther opened the intellectual
floodgates, pitting Protestantism against Catholic dogma. The
Enlightenment took root in the northern European countries that
embraced Lutheran ideas, while the south languished under the
The Reformation was born of Luther's
conviction that the established church had left the path of true
belief. It practised nepotism, bewitched believers by intoning in
Latin, and raised funds by selling indulgences.
convinced that salvation could be granted by God alone, without
priestly intervention. He spoke of a priesthood of all believers,
and encouraged every man to read the Bible for himself. They began
to read God's other book — the book of nature — for themselves too.
Nicolaus Copernicus unveiled Heliocentric cosmology in 1543. He
was a Catholic canon who dedicated his book to Pope Paul III. Luther
had a low opinion of Copernicus and said it was hubris and blasphemy
to suppose that one could decode God’s handiwork.
and Catholic religious leaders were more interested in maintaining
worldly power and authority than in fundamental conflicts between
reason and belief. Any differences on natural philosophy were
relatively trivial. Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton shared a belief
in a universe created by a consistent God who decreed its laws.
Base editing is a new way to
edit single letters in DNA or RNA.
The human genome contains
six billion DNA letters, or chemical bases A, C, G, T. These letters
pair off, A with T and C with G. The molecular scalpel CRISPR-Cas9
can edit or delete genes, but base editing lets a user change a
single letter at a time without breaking the double helix.
Researchers modified CRISPR to work on a single base by rearranging
the atoms in an A to resemble a G. The cell then fixed the other DNA
strand to complete the switch, turning an A-T base pair into a G‑C
one. The user can rewrite errors in the genetic code instead of
cutting and replacing whole chunks of DNA.
used base editing to correct a point mutation that causes hereditary
hemochromatosis. They also used the base editor in human cells to
induce a mutation that suppresses sickle-cell anemia. In both cases,
they detected virtually no off-target effects.
has a broad set of therapeutic applications.
2017 October 26
The House of Saud
For decades in Saudi Arabia, the royal
family has promised but not delivered. This may be changing.
Saudi crown prince Mohammed bin Salman says the Iranian revolution
triggered copycat religious regimes across the region and now is the
time to change: "We are simply reverting to what we followed — a
moderate Islam open to the world and all religions. Seventy percent
of Saudis are younger than 30. Honestly, we won't waste 30 years of
our life combating extremist thoughts, we will destroy them now and
It seems Prince Mohammed and the royal
establishment are serious. With low oil prices and an undiversified
economy, the regime can no longer sustain the current system. In the
past, the rulers thought only of preserving their own power by
giving subsidies to citizens and concessions to the religious
Prince Mohammed has always been big on social
transformation. A senior Saudi royal figure: "This is about giving
kids a social life. Entertainment needs to be an option for them.
They are bored and resentful. A woman needs to be able to drive
herself to work. Without that we are all doomed. Everyone knows that
— except the people in small towns. But they will learn."
Saudi royal family tried to expropriate religion for political
purposes. The result is extremism.
2017 October 25
Mad Dog, Get Trump
Thomas L. Friedman
The four big men in Team Trump are
National Security Adviser H. R. McMaster, Secretary of State
Rex Tillerson, White House Chief of Staff John Kelly, and Secretary
of Defense James Mattis.
● McMaster doesn't seem to
have a relationship with Trump that could constrain the Prez.
● Tillerson blew himself up by
starring in a hostage video in which he sang the president's
praises. After Trump tweeted that Tillerson was wasting his time
negotiating with North Korea, Tillerson had to publicly assure us
that he had not been castrated by Trump, which meant he had.
● Kelly squandered his moral
authority by starring in his own White House podium hostage video.
He began well and explained how the president's phone call to the
widow of a Green Beret killed in Niger got garbled. But then he
began to talk like Trump, gratuitously spouting provably false
● Mattis is the last man
standing, the only one who can still put some fear into Trump.
Mad Dog, you need to act. Lead the team in telling Trump that if
he does not change his ways you will all quit. Your job is not to
wipe up Trump's daily filth.
Brexit — Stupidest Thing
Billionaire media mogul and former New York
mayor Michael Bloomberg says Brexit is the "single stupidest thing
any country has ever done" apart from the election of Donald Trump
as US president.
Bloomberg said "it is really hard to
understand why a country that was doing so well wanted to ruin it"
with the Brexit vote.
from page 129 of my novel
"President Newman recently said Brexit was the
dumbest idea since the German invasion of Russia in 1941. It ruined
a flourishing trading relationship, turned a powerful group of
potential friends into bitter enemies, was based on a totally
erroneous and divisive view of the world, was impossible to bring to
a good conclusion without a level of support that was nowhere in
sight, and led to the utter destruction of the state that started
2017 October 24
Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New
Today we, more than 1.3 billion Chinese
people, live in jubilation and dignity. Our land radiates with
enormous dynamism. Our Chinese civilization shines with lasting
splendor and glamor.
Our party shows strong, firm, and
vibrant leadership. Our socialist system demonstrates great strength
and vitality. The Chinese people and the Chinese nation embrace
CPC amends Constitution to include Xi Jinping Thought
Brexit — Three Options
Sir Vince Cable
"This is in fact up to London how this
will end: with a good deal, no deal, or no Brexit."
I welcome Donald Tusk's comments in the European Parliament. No
matter what Theresa May says, there are still three options on the
● No deal
● A deal
● No Brexit
The EU have
confirmed what we have been saying all along: If Brexit looks like a
disaster we can call the whole thing off.
Big Smash Refutes Cosmic Theories
On 17 August, the LIGO collaboration
saw gravitational waves from two big objects spiraling toward each
other. About 1.7 s later, the Fermi satellite detected a GRB. Other
telescopes too observed the collision of two neutron stars about 130
million light years from Earth, now named GW170817.
results show that gravitational waves travel at speed c to within
about 1 in 10^15. This refutes some theories that modify general
relativity (GR) to try to explain dark energy or dark matter. Our
standard model says dark matter makes up about 27% of the universe
and dark energy about 68%.
Modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND)
and a theory called tensor-vector-scalar (TeVeS) gravity have tried
explain the motion of stars and galaxies without dark matter.
Another attempt to modify GR models gravity with a new Galileon
field driving cosmic acceleration in the last few billion years.
These theories are now refuted.
GR includes dark energy as a
cosmological constant. Other simple models, such as quintessence,
introduce a new field that lets vacuum energy density change over
time. These theories survive.
Explaining dark matter and dark
energy may require reconciling GR with quantum mechanics in a theory
of quantum gravity.
The brain is complicated. People with
damage to the frontal lobes suffer personality change. A high
proportion of people in prison for violent offences had a history of
head injury earlier in their lives.
Different areas of the
frontal lobes interact with the limbic system. These interactions
are structured by our genes and experiences. Reason and emotion are
not separate processes in the brain but are deeply intertwined.
Children who suffer extreme emotional and physical deprivation
have smaller brains with less frontal metabolism and connectivity
than children brought up in normal families. They also have larger
amygdala, the parts of the temporal lobes involved in fear and
Human behavior is determined by the mechanics of
our brains. If people behave badly, it is because of the
neurological, genetic, hormonal, and environmental determinants that
shaped their brains, not because of any evil nature.
I do not
choose my feelings. They were formed by my genes and experiences in
early life. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex helps us do the
harder thing which is right.
2017 October 23
How to Stop Brexit
Yes, we can, says Nick Clegg in his readable and
persuasive little book. He recalls the reasons and motives behind
the Leave victory in the 2016 Brexit referendum and marshals the
case for reversing the decision before it is too late. For my part,
I find the case cogent and convincing.
Essentially, Brexit is
far more complicated and damaging than voters ever imagined when
they made their decision last year. Misled by a shameless and
mendacious propaganda campaign, many simply did what came naturally
and voted out of a vague sense of national pride. Most of them had
no clue about the economic and political complications that make
Brexit, in any rational assessment, one of the worst policy
decisions ever made in the British Isles.
Nick Clegg was
punished already in 2015 for his unfortunate coalition with the
Conservatives in government. As a consistent and prominent supporter
of EU membership from the start, he found himself on the losing side
in the 2016 battle for British votes. Admirably, he has stuck to his
guns and refused to drink the Kool-Aid that is currently poisoning
the Conservative government led by Theresa May.
As a former
leader of the Liberal Democrats, Clegg is so mortified by the
electoral demise of his former party that he now advises his readers
to vote Labour, in the vague and poorly founded hope that a
government led by Jeremy Corbyn might find a way to reverse Brexit.
Such a government would be far more likely to keep Britain in the
single market and the customs union, which is a minimum condition
for national prosperity in the foreseeable future, but it would
probably also do great damage on other fronts, so this looks like
The practical advice Clegg urges toward the end
of his tract is sound. British voters who are unhappy at the
prospect of Brexit should join a political party, attend political
meetings, badger their MP, make their views known, and add their
weight to a mass movement to demonstrate that the 2016 referendum decision is no longer valid. Democracy was never intended to mean
one citizen, one vote, one time.
How to Stop Brexit .. by Nick Clegg
2017 October 22
Solar Physics Puzzle
The Sun seems to contain less metal than
expected. Its mass is about 2 billion Yg, most of it H and He, with
about 2% of heavier elements (such as C, N, O, Fe, all of which
astronomers call metals). But about 10 out of the 40 million Yg of
metals our models predict seem to be missing.
We study the Sun using light and sound. Spectroscopists pass solar
photons through prisms, diffracting it into barcodes for the
different elements. Helioseismologists look at sound vibrations on
the solar surface.
Perhaps the metals are not behaving as
expected. Opacity is a measure of how much energy can pass through a
given material. Heavier elements are more opaque than H and He. For
the helioseismology results to hold up, the opacity of the metals in
the Sun needs to be higher.
Atom have a nucleus surrounded by
electrons that orbit at precisely defined energy levels. In the high
temperatures and pressures of the solar core, the energy levels
shift and expand, increasing opacity. We need to observe atoms
interacting with light under high temperatures and pressures.
A team used the Sandia National Labs Z machine to zap a small
iron disk with a flash of energy intense enough to resemble the
solar interior, with temperatures and pressures high enough to
really excite the Fe atoms. The experiments show the hot metal has a
higher opacity than expected.
We can get a deeper
view of the Sun by observing the neutrinos created in its interior.
Some 1% of them are born in core fusion processes involving atoms of
C, N, and O. Observing CNO neutrinos would help us understand the
AI Go Supremacy
A mere 19 months after AlphaGo dethroned the
world's top human Go player, AlphaGo Zero taught itself to beat
AlphaGo. By freeing AI from human knowledge, the breakthrough
removes a primary limit on how smart machines can become.
AlphaGo was taught to play the game using first
supervised learning, where it was fed 100,000 top amateur Go games
and taught to imitate them, and then reinforcement learning, where
it played itself and learned to play more consistently.
AlphaGo Zero began knowing only the rules of Go and played games
against itself. At first it played randomly but soon it improved.
After 3 days and 4.9 million training games, AlphaGo Zero played
AlphaGo and won 100 games to 0.
Photograph: Richard Carson/Reuters
Carter, George HW Bush, George W Bush, Barack Obama, Bill Clinton
Deep From The Heart: The One America Appeal, Texas A&M University
Fundraiser for those affected by recent hurricanes
Geert Vanden Wijngaert
Brussels, October 20
"Ich glaube, dass in der
klar ist, was jetzt noch
zu geschehen hat."
Imperial War Museums
British 3.7" AA
gun and ATS
spotter, England, 1942
see such images and say:
"Ah, the good old days!"
"Xi Jinping sits on top
of the Communist Party,
on top of China, and
China sits on top
Somewhere in Hydra
waves from collision
Deep Space Gateway
Last Brexit To Paradise
Theresa May and her cabinet
are contingency planning for
no deal with Brussels before the
UK leaves the EU in March 2019.
No deal would also mean no
transition period. Hard Brexit
fans cheer the prospect as
only way to break free.
AR Free of
life as we know it
— free of this mortal coil.
A survey found that
42% of respondents think
it is right to leave the EU,
compared with 47% who think
wrong. This is the biggest
gap in favour of remaining
EU since the
Sir Robert Syms
MP for Poole
2017 October 21
Alexis de Tocqueville was a humanist.
The brilliance of people as they are liberated by new ideas makes his case for
democracy. Their gifts are highly individual.
of minds and spirits is a sunlight that falls across the whole
landscape of civilization. Tocqueville stood at a place in the
evolution of culture where there was both a continuous expansion of
literacy and learning and a vast population they had not yet
Impatience with the energy and originality of the
mind is inimical to poetry, eloquence, wit, imagination, and depth
of thought. The impulse is historically expressed as social
engineering. Armies of ideal workers will compete successfully
against whomever for whatever into an endless future, at profound
cost to themselves.
The humanities do not prepare ideal helots. But they are ideal
for preparing imaginative and innovative
contributors to a full and generous national life. Politicians who
attack public higher education as too expensive have made it so for
electoral or ideological reasons.
2017 October 20
David Bentley Hart is an Eastern Orthodox
theologian and philosopher. He says God is being, goodness and
truth, and to be is to depend on God. Hart says this view is that of
just about every significant theistic philosopher in human history.
Hart sees the progressive secularization of Western culture as a
long march toward nihilism. Secularism, capitalism and
individualism, consumerism and voluntarism, scientism and
materialism all effect the triumph of the will in human affairs.
Hart has no problem with science, with quantum mechanics and
evolution and ecological degradation and the value of nonhuman
animals. His problem is with the transformation of scientific
inquiry into a metaphysics that denies meaning to any further
questions. He calls scientism a barbarous fundamentalism regarding
knowledge or inquiry.
Hart remains a distinguished public
theologian in a country that no longer recognizes them. We are
living in the twilight of an ancient civilization. Christendom is
gone, and the Christian culture of the West seems destined for slow
2017 October 19
America v China
China, while rising alongside India, has
done so less responsibly, at times undermining the international
China's provocative actions in the South
China Sea directly challenge international law and norms. We will
not shrink when China subverts the sovereignty of neighboring
countries and disadvantages the United States and our friends.
China's model of economic development in smaller countries
saddles those nations with enormous levels of debt. The United
States will collaborate with India to create a region of peace,
stability, and growing prosperity.
America will pursue a free
and open policy across the Indo-Pacific map. India, an important
democracy, pins the western side of that map. Japan, another
important and strong democracy with whom we have strong security
relationships, pins the eastern side. Australia covers the South
Pacific, and America defines the region at its eastern edge.
America will never have the same relationship with non-democratic
China that we can have with a major democracy.
Brexit — Expect No Deal
In a letter organized by the Leave Means
Leave campaign, former UK cabinet ministers Owen Paterson, Lord
Lawson, John Redwood, and Peter Lilley call on Theresa May to walk away
from Brexit talks with no deal if the EU refuses to discuss trade.
German parliament CDU/CSU group vice chair Michael Fuchs
confirmed that money was the major sticking point in the
negotiations: "A figure of .. between €100 billion and maybe €60
billion should be the right point .. €20 billion is definitely not
UK immigration minister Brandon Lewis: "We do value
and we want EU citizens to stay .. EU citizens have the right to
continue to stay in the United Kingdom .. British citizens have that
reciprocal right when they are living abroad in Europe as well."
The Trump Doctrine
Thomas L. Friedman
The Trump Doctrine is very simple:
"Obama built it. I broke it. You fix it."
Trump wants to do
too much at once without any real preparation or planning. He makes
big decisions without consulting experts and without connecting the
● Pulls out of the nuclear deal with Iran but needs a
nuclear deal with North Korea
● Needs to stabilize Iraq, Syria, and
Afghanistan but gives up on help from Iran
● Wants to end the trade
imbalance with China but tears up the TPP trade deal
● Pulls out of
the Paris climate accord and loses out on the green energy market
Restricts funding for birth control yet seeks to reduce the influx
None of these dots connect. Trump has not
thought this through.
AR How long
must we suffer the Trump—Brexit fallout from ignorant, stubborn
voters in the US-UK world?
2017 October 18
Secure a Decisive Victory in Building a Moderately
Prosperous Society in All Respects and Strive for the Great Success
of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era
China will see the basic realization of
socialist modernization by 2035 after 15 years of hard work.
1 From 2020 to 2035, the CPC will build
on the foundation created by the moderately prosperous society with
a further 15 years of hard work to see that socialist modernization
is basically realized.
2035 to 2050, the CPC will, building on having basically achieved
modernization, work hard for a further 15 years and develop China
into a great modern socialist country.
By mid-century, the
following goals will have been met:
— New heights reached in
every dimension of material, political, cultural and ethical,
social, and ecological advancement
— Modernization of China's
system and capacity for governance
— China a global leader in
terms of overall national strength and international influence
Common prosperity for everyone
— Chinese people happier, safer,
The Chinese nation will become a proud and
active member of the community of nations.
Brexit — Saboteurs
As the bleakness of the Brexit dilemma
becomes more apparent, the search for scapegoats begins. Brexiteers
target the EU but they are now also rounding on the enemy within:
the British people and institutions they accuse of undermining
The search for saboteurs gives off a whiff of
desperation and defeat. Framing the issue as the people versus the
elite backfires — many prominent Leavers are members of the British
elite. Roughly half the country still thinks Brexit is a mistake.
Brexit — Hypocrisy
For decades, politicians and commentators
in Britain ignored, misrepresented, or sneered at the European
project. Now the UK is on its way out, people are suddenly waving EU
Many of those now fighting for continued membership of
the single market and customs union seem unable to shed a
fundamentally Eurosceptic perspective.
and media have misrepresented and mocked Europe for decades. Few
remainers ever made an unconditionally positive case for the EU in
public. Hardly anyone seriously challenged the myths and
misconceptions that dominate the British debate.
Maybe the EU
is flawed, imperfect, in need of reform. The UK is imperfect too.
Brexit — Verdict
The OECD verdict:
— The UK growth rate
will fall to 1% next year
— A disorderly exit from the EU in 2019
would hurt trade and reduce growth
— A reversal of the Brexit
decision would have a significant positive impact on UK growth
Low productivity and poor export performance leave the UK too weak
to prosper outside the EU.
2017 October 17
Two Neutron Stars Collide
The New York Times
"It's the greatest fireworks show in
LIGO executive director David Reitze
can't think of a similar situation in the field of science in my
lifetime, where a single event provides so many staggering insights
about our universe."
LIGO Scientific Collaboration member Daniel
"Joy for all."
LIGO Scientific Collaboration
spokesman David Shoemaker
Astronomers have seen and heard a
pair of neutron stars collide, giving them their first view of how
the gold and other heavy metals in the universe were created. Such
collisions spew out gamma rays, X‑rays, and radio waves in what
astrophysicist Brian David Metzger in 2010 called a kilonova.
On August 17, a LIGO detector recorded a signal and sent out an
alert. Transformed into sound, the signal was a 100 s chirp ending
in a sudden whoop to 1 kHz. Meanwhile, the Fermi Space Telescope
recorded a brief burst of gamma rays 2 s after the LIGO chirp and
sent out its own alert. The GRB lasted about 2 s. The signals told a tale of a pair of neutron stars spiraling around each
The kilonova fireball showed up as a new bluish
pinprick of light in the outer regions of NGC 4993, a galaxy about
130 million light years away. The merging neutron stars were
probably relics of massive stars that had died in supernova
explosions some 11 billion years ago. These neutron stars were about
1.1 and 1.6 times as massive as the sun.
As they approached
each other, orbiting a thousand times a second, tidal forces bulged
their surfaces outward. Their guts were ejected and formed a fat
doughnut around them.
At the moment they touched, a shock
wave squeezed more stuff out of their polar regions, but the
doughnut and extreme magnetic fields confined the material into a
pair of fast jets emitting gamma rays. As the jets slowed down, they
became visible in X-rays and then radio waves.
The big splat
poured out neutrons into space, where they transmuted surrounding
atoms into heavy elements. The radioactivity of these elements kept
the fireball hot. Over a few days, an amount of gold up to 100 times
the mass of the Earth may have been blown into space.
discovery filled fills the gap in our story of how the elements were
cooked up from primordial H and He. Stars and supernovas can cook
the elements up to Fe, but heavier elements need a different
A blizzard of papers is being
published — one in The Physical Review Letters has some 3,500
LIGO found it first, on 17 August, in the
constellation Hydra. Gravitational waves and a burst of gamma
radiation came from a collision between two neutron stars.
It marks the first proof that neutron star mergers emit gamma
ray bursts, the first sighting of heavy elements being formed, and
the first measurement of universal expansion using gravitational
The collision was observed in wavelengths across the
EM spectrum from radio to gamma rays. Images from the Hubble Space
Telescope show us the resulting cloud of hot plasma and gas.
The gravitational waves produced in this collision also revealed
how fast the universe is expanding. The waves confirm previous
We now know we have been witnessing neutron
star mergers for as long as we have observed short gamma ray bursts.
LIGO will see many more.
2017 October 16
We will return American astronauts to the
Moon, not only to leave behind footprints and flags, but to build
the foundation we need to send Americans to Mars and beyond. The
Moon will be a stepping stone, a training ground, a venue to
strengthen our commercial and international partnerships as we
refocus America's space program toward human space exploration.
Neel V. Patel
NASA already has plans to go to the Moon.
The first of a series of manned missions to lunar orbit will launch
in 2022. But the cost of maintaining and operating a lunar base
would be astronomical.
NASA aims to develop the Deep Space
Gateway, a crewed space station deployed between the Earth and the
Moon as a staging point for deep space missions. It will be up above
the lunar gravity well. The lunar surface is an unnecessary detour
if the aim is to go to Mars.
All crewed missions divert funding from scientifically more
productive robot missions. Human space exploration is best
accomplished when the robot support systems are mature. Otherwise
the first space tragedy will set back progress for decades.
The Brexit right has no plan beyond a desire
to turn Britain into a Randian dystopia where regulations vanish and
the state withers. It has no policy beyond a nostalgic hope that
Britain will sail across the wide blue oceans and conquer new
markets as our imperial ancestors conquered them before. This is
religion, not politics.
The Bright wingnuts have no allies,
only enemies. Many of them have been fighting their opponents in the
Tory party for 30 years. The wounds are too deep, the scars are too
thick, for them to admit now the other side may have a point.
Beyond the desire to create an isolated state in the Atlantic,
where welfare and regulations are slashed and climate change denied,
is a more primal impulse. They cannot concede an inch to enemies.
Compromise, even a compromise with reality, feels like a betrayal.
But as propagandists the Brexiteers are anything but stupid.
They have been the most brilliantly successful manipulators of
public opinion in modern British history. Despite the collapse in
the pound and living standards, despite the descent of the
negotiations into the mire, not one prominent supporter of Brexit
has admitted to the smallest doubt.
Battle of Brexit
The outcome of the UK general election in June
has changed everything. When Theresa May first said she intended to
withdraw the UK from the EU single market and customs union, she
also said she wanted to keep strategic sectors of the UK economy
inside the single market and customs union. Britain would have its
cake and eat it.
May put together her approach without much
input from her cabinet or British business. Her fall has blown open
the politics of Brexit within her cabinet. The contradictions have
been exposed as rival factions fight for supremacy.
cabinet faction led by Philip Hammond wants to salvage as much as
possible of UK trading ties with the EU. Boris Johnson leads the
cabinet faction agitating for a hard Brexit. The divisions make it
unlikely that the cabinet can reach agreement.
the outcome of the June 2016 referendum is the will of the people.
But public opinion is unstable. If the polling numbers move against
Brexit, the political class will surely take note and abandon the
whole disastrous project.
A Great American Novel
The idea that rational men are not in charge of
running the universe recurs through the 29 parts of the 880 pages of
4321. Years in the making, Paul Auster's 17th novel appeared just as
the author turned 70. It is both a panorama of American life between
1947 and 1971 and a vastly magnified quartet, in which the same
smart kid, Archie Ferguson from New Jersey, grows up in four
different ways, with four separate destinies.
Grandson of a
penniless migrant whose stumbling Yiddish replies at Ellis Island
("Ikh hob fargessen") turn him, by chance, into Ichabod Ferguson,
Archie enters the world in March 1947, a month after his creator.
After this prologue, the four versions of Ferguson are woven into a
Bildungsroman that stretches from infancy to early adulthood.
The parallel Fergusons grow up in the same, shared time. Their
paths never stray far from plausibility for a bright Jewish boy in
the Newark suburbs. Auster makes them writers in assorted genres, to
scatter shards of autobiography among his parallel worlds. Each
Ferguson learns that reason governs neither the state nor the heart.
4321 by Paul Auster
2017 October 15
Beijing is preparing for the 19th national congress
of the Communist Party of China in the Great Hall of the People on
Tiananmen Square, starting Wednesday.
Xi Jinping, 64, is sure
to continue as party general secretary and national president. The
congress is a further opportunity for him to consolidate his power.
Last year the party added Core Leader to his other titles. This
year the congress may celebrate Xi Jinping Thought — an honour
previously reserved for Mao Zedong.
Xi aims to preside over
the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. This China dream is
hugely popular: 92% of citizens say China is on the right track.
Trump Cuts Health Care
Amy Davidson Sorkin
President Donald Trump staged a
signing ceremony for an executive order designed to push people
into junk insurance plans. He said he will withhold the subsidies
that the government currently pays insurance companies. Both moves
recklessly target vulnerable Americans.
Trump said he
defunded the subsidies because paying them went against the will of
Congress. In effect, Congress had promised the money but now wants
the right to withhold it on a regular basis. This is something any
congressional majority interested in avoiding chaos in the insurance
markets could have fixed.
The false stories congressional
Republicans drew of Obamacare fed partisan demands for Trump to
savage it. The Republican party made a destructive promise that
Trump has been eager to keep. Party leaders were quick with their
The Trump administration has rewritten rules to
let plans omit birth control. It has cut programs that help people
sign up for Obamacare and hidden information about affordable plans.
At the signing ceremony, Trump said: "I'm only signing it because it
Donald Trump's decision to go it alone with
rapid fire announcements on healthcare and Iran reflects his boiling
frustration with the limits of presidential power.
Chris Murphy: "Trump's decision to stop ACA payments is nuclear
grade bananas, a temper tantrum that sets the entire health system
Trump's threat to terminate the Iran deal puts him
at odds with secretary of state Rex Tillerson and defense secretary
White House chief of staff John Kelly: "The
Congress has been frustrating to him .. in his view, the solutions
Replika is a chat bot that gradually moulds its traits and style
of speech around each user so as to win trust. It is just one of a
host of electronic angels and demons coders are building for us.
This technology poses new risks for our freedom and dignity.
We need to decide what is
acceptable, before it is decided for us. Imagine yourself as a cloud
of data moving through the world. Every time you do anything, you
shed more data that can be sucked up and used to understand what
makes you tick.
These tools will undermine what it means to
be an individual. Corporations will use their new powers to
manipulate our psychology for their own gain. In a world where
machines can predict and sculpt our deepest desires, free will is
Cambridge Analytica used AI to help elect
Donald Trump. Members of the Quantified Self movement log every
aspect of their lives with fitness trackers, smartphone sensors, and
other widgets. Replika will wake up on millions of devices next
2017 October 14
The Iranian dictatorship .. remains the
world's leading state sponsor of terrorism .. It develops, deploys,
and proliferates missiles .. It harasses American ships .. It
imprisons Americans .. And it launches cyberattacks ..
Realizing the gravity of the situation, the United States and the
United Nations Security Council sought, over many years, to stop
Iran's pursuit of nuclear weapons with a wide array of strong
But the previous administration lifted
these sanctions, just before what would have been the total collapse
of the Iranian regime, through the deeply controversial 2015 nuclear
deal with Iran. ..
Iran is not living up to the spirit of the
deal. So today .. I am announcing a new strategy ..
1 We will work with our allies to
counter the regime's destabilizing activity and support for
terrorist proxies in the region.
We will place additional sanctions on the regime to block their
financing of terror.
3 We will
address the regime's proliferation of missiles and weapons that
threaten its neighbors, global trade, and freedom of navigation.
4 We will deny the regime all paths
to a nuclear weapon.
We cannot afford .. to dismantle a
nuclear agreement that is working and delivering .. Iran is
implementing all its nuclear-related commitments .. There have been
no violations of any of the commitments included in the agreement.
The international community .. has clearly indicated that the
deal is and will continue to be in place. The European Union
continues to fully support the Iran nuclear deal, and .. is
committed to preserve it, to the benefit of all, including the
2017 October 13
Trump Can Nuke Alone
The New York Times
Does President Trump understand, and
can he responsibly manage, the most destructive nuclear arsenal on
He has threatened to totally destroy North Korea. He
has reportedly pressed for a massive buildup in the American nuclear
arsenal. And soon he will decide for or against the Iran nuclear
Senator Bob Corker trusts Rex Tillerson, Jim Mattis,
and John Kelly to help "separate our country from chaos" — a searing
indictment from a respected voice on national security issues.
Congress is considering legislation to bar the president from
launching a first nuclear strike without a declaration of war by
Congress. Today he could unleash a nuclear war within minutes, by
his word alone.
How Many Nukes?
When President Trump was shown a graph
tracking the dramatic reduction in American and Russian nuclear
weapons over recent decades, he pointed to the peak year 1969, when
America had 32,000 nuclear weapons, and said he wanted that many
Officials explained that the roughly 4,000 weapons
in the current US strategic arsenal are better able to carry out
their missions than the much larger force half a century ago. As
other national security issues were brought up, Pentagon officials
were rattled by his lack of understanding on all fronts.
Trump is not interested in learning. His idolatry of military
officers is well known, but less noted is his idolatry of big guns
for their own sake. He wants military parades as a show of strength.
He told his aides he wanted 32,000 nuclear weapons because that was
the largest number of nuclear weapons a president ever had.
Forget about the budget or why we need so many nuclear weapons.
And forget IQ — America's top diplomat called Trump a fucking moron.
Brexit — Deadlock
Michel Barnier: "Here we are again. The same
two people." Then he switched to French. He reiterated the three
things on which there was no real progress. Citizens rights.
Northern Ireland. The financial settlement. He tried to offer a
glimmer of hope: "Decisive progress is possible within two months."
The last time someone had said "It will be all over by Christmas"
was in 1914.
Ein harter Brexit ohne Austrittsabkommen wird immer wahrscheinlicher
AR Soon time to pack
2017 October 12
Ludwig Wittgenstein is seen as the model of a
great philosopher. He is obscure and intense, severe and mystical,
charismatic and strange, driven and tragic, with his difficulty
bound up with his character and his life. Wittgenstein saw
philosophy not just as a vocation, but as a way of life.
in 1889, Wittgenstein came from a wealthy but dysfunctional Viennese
family. He began as an engineer and ended as a fellow in philosophy
at Cambridge. He published only one book in his lifetime, the
Tractatus-Logico-Philosophicus (1921). He left
manuscripts and notes later published in various forms. The central work
is the posthumous Philosophical Investigations (1953).
Tractatus, Wittgenstein asked what must be the case if we are able
to have true and false thoughts of the world. His answer was that
the world, language, and thought must share a common logical form.
But later he came to abandon and replace much
of this conception.
In the Philosophical Investigations,
Wittgenstein aims to wean us from the idea of intrinsically
representational and meaningful psychological states or processes.
Because we think language is fundamentally about naming things, we
think that psychological concepts must be names of things in an
inner space, so language is really private.
meaning only gets going in and through the shared practices and
interactions of living beings and is only visible in their lives and
activity. In the beginning is not the word but the deed. Just as
gold does not explain the value of money, thoughts do not explain
the meaning of words. We do not mirror reality. We are enmeshed in
„Das Volk ist derjenige Teil des Staates,
nicht weiß, was er will.“
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Government by the worst
people among us, or
the most inept kind
having more for
public services, Brexit Britain
will have to
spend tens of
billions it doesn't have on
new quangos —
Guide To Presidential Etiquette
If you are the POTUS, you may:
● Mock a foreign leader with
a demeaning nickname and
threaten his country with
AfD is the German UKIP,
another tribal atavism:
madness of Brexit;
AfD can do worse
If President Trump refuses to
certify that Iran is complying
with the nuclear deal he will
be making his most feckless
foreign policy decision yet
"Theresa May can restore
some of her credibility by
Boris Johnson in
charge of Brexit."
AR That would add
to the proceedings!
Not quite for everyone
"Nobody has yet said they
disagree with government
Boris is doing what
Boris has always done, adding
to the gaiety of
UK foreign secretary
Boris Johnson recited part of a
colonialist poem in front of
dignitaries while on an official
visit to Myanmar in
In the Shwedagon Pagoda, the
most sacred Buddhist
Yangon, he started reciting
The Road to Mandalay
by Rudyard Kipling.
The UK ambassador to Myanmar
before he got to:
Bloomin' idol made o' mud
Wot they called the
Great Gawd Budd
2017 October 11
A German Prophet
Götz Kubitschek, a tall black-clad figure
with a well-trimmed goatee and the upright posture of a military
officer, is 47 and lives in a village in eastern Germany. He calls
himself a conservative, battling to preserve German identity, which
he says is threatened by immigration and the alienating effects of
modernity. He has warned of the looming demise of the German Volk
and has connections to some of the most radical AfD politicians.
European nationalists promote a kind of New Right rainbow
coalition, in which sovereign states steadfastly maintain their
ethnic and cultural identities within a larger western ideal. New
Right thinkers dream of establishing a common front that would unite
opponents of liberalism on both extremes of the political spectrum.
They say German self-hatred must be overcome for Germany to be great
Kubitschek says that in a time of great peril a leader
must act beyond the law. He says the consequences of a revolt are
less troubling than the threat of what would happen if the Volk
lacked the courage to defend itself from cultural erosion. Recently
Finis Germania, a book by Rolf Peter Sieferle.
Finis Germania — blog 2017 July 12
Brexit — Update
UK prime minister Theresa May, who voted
Remain in the 2016 referendum, was asked how she would vote in a new
referendum: "What I did last time around was I looked at everything
and came to a judgment and I'd do exactly the same this time
European Council president Donald Tusk: "If it turns
out that the talks continue at a slow pace, and that sufficient
progress hasn't been reached, then together with our UK friends we
will have to think about where we are heading."
Philip Hammond: "The government and the Treasury are prepared. We
are planning for every outcome."
We can still turn HMS Britannia around and escape the Brexit
2017 October 10
We are experiencing kakistocracy in
America. The Constitution prohibits anything of value other than a
salary going to a president from the federal government or the
states. Trump pushed for more favorable property taxes. Ivanka Trump
and Jared Kushner have sought to leverage their White House status
for business gain. A string of Trump cabinet members and White House
staffers have been caught spending staggering sums of taxpayer
dollars to charter jets.
World stability is endangered by the
embarrassing triangle involving secretary of state Rex Tillerson,
secretary of defense James Mattis, and Trump. Within the last week,
Trump undercut Tillerson via tweet, taking diplomatic talks with
North Korea off the table while his secretary of state was in China.
Then Tillerson reportedly called the president a moron. Mattis then
told the Senate that America should continue to certify the Iran
nuclear deal, after which the president undercut his credibility by
decertifying the deal.
Donald Trump campaigned by promising
to run government like a business. Ot the 602 key policy positions
in the executive requiring Senate confirmation, only 142 have been
filled and 289 have not even had a nominee chosen. The record here
is starkly worse than under the previous four presidents.
John Kelly left his position at Homeland Security for the White
House in July. The vacancy he left remains. There are still no
nominees for undersecretary for national protection, undersecretary
for science and technology, or assistant secretaries for policy or
immigration. The same pattern holds true for almost every other
cabinet department or key agency.
The record of the Trump
administration in its first nine months is abysmal. Not one of the
big goals set by the president or majority congressional leaders has
been achieved. The administration is inept, venal, and reckless.
2017 Nobel Prize in Economics
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Richard H. Thaler has
incorporated psychologically realistic assumptions into analyses of
economic decision making. He has shown how limited rationality,
social preferences, and lack of self-control systematically affect
individual decisions as well as market outcomes.
● Limited rationality
— Thaler developed the theory of mental accounting, explaining how
people simplify financial decision making by creating separate
accounts in their minds, and showed how aversion to losses can
explain the endowment effect.
● Social preferences
— Thaler showed how consumers may stop firms from raising prices in
periods of high demand, but not in times of rising costs, and
devised a tool to measure attitudes to fairness in different groups
of people around the world.
● Lack of self-control
— Thaler analyzed self-control problems using a planner-doer model
to describe the internal tension between long-term planning and
short-term doing, and demonstrated how nudging may help people
exercise better self-control.
Thaler has built a bridge
between the economic and psychological analyses of individual
decision making. Behavioural economics has had a profound impact on
many areas of economic research and policy.
Living With God
Saint Augustine wrote his Confessions in
about 397 CE, a few years after he had become a Christian bishop. In
the first nine books, Augustine describes his life from his birth to
his conversion in Milan and the death of his mother. In books 10 and
11, he includes philosophical thoughts on the nature of memory and
time. In the last two books, Augustine plunges into the Hebrew
In her new translation, Sarah Ruden renames God
as a master. This change brings Augustine to life. In relation to
God, Augustine experiences all the ups and downs of a household
slave in relation to his master. Augustine changes in his relation
to God, over the years, from slave to repentant son to lover. Ruden
conveys a living sense of the being before whom we find him
transfixed in prayer.
Augustine uses medical terminology in
books 6 and 7 to describe the last stages of his conversion.
Here the crack of the whip is silent. Nor does truth dawn suddenly
for him in the garish manner of conventional conversion narratives.
Instead, we enter the gentle light of a Roman sickroom, as God, the
supremely tender doctor, tiptoes in to place his hand on Augustine.
Augustine has a gift for miniaturizing sin. Examining his
motives for robbing a pear tree, he isolates the possibility that he
had acted gratuitously, simply to show that he could do whatever he
wished. By the time the bishop approached his sexual temptations, he
looks at his sins as if through the diminishing end of a telescope.
They are disturbing because they are so small but so tenacious.
2017 October 9
Trump: "Maybe it's the calm before the storm."
Reporter: "What storm Mr President?"
Trump: "You'll find out."
The New York Times
Senate Foreign Relations Committee
chair Republican Senator Bob Corker says President Trump is treating
his office like a reality show, with reckless threats toward other
countries that could lead to World War III: "He concerns me. He would
have to concern anyone who cares about our nation .. the White House
has become an adult day care center .. every single day at the White
House, it's a situation of trying to contain him."
could play a key role if Trump follows through on his threat to
decertify the Iran nuclear deal. On Trump: "I know .. in several
instances, he's hurt us as it relates to negotiations that were
underway by tweeting things out .. the vast majority of our caucus
understands .. the volatility that we're dealing with and the
tremendous amount of work that it takes by people around him to keep
him in the middle of the road."
Corker, 65, is a former mayor
of Chattanooga who became wealthy in construction. He says the
commander in chief is not fully aware of the power of his office: "I
don't think he appreciates that when the president of the United
States speaks and says the things that he does, the impact that it
has around the world."
New cochlear implants will let users stream
audio directly from their iPhone into their cochlear nerve. Apple
and Cochlear have made the connectivity available for any hearing
implants that use the Nucleus 7 sound processor. The audio signal is
highly compressed, but the technology is likely to be adopted by
consumer audio devices. Technology giants are betting heavily on
audio interfaces becoming the norm in the future. We will wear
transparent ear buds that let us hear the world around us while also
working online through our phone.
2017 October 8
A German Patriot
Klaus Riedelsdorf is a German patriot. He
wants his country back. Islam is an ideology, he says, and an
Islamic takeover of Germany is the greatest danger the country has
faced since the Cold War.
He cites three fiascos: the euro
fiasco, where Germany ended up paying to bail out other countries;
the environment fiasco, where Germany renounced nuclear power; and
the refugee fiasco, where Angela Merkel has let in a million-strong
"army with stones" since 2015.
Riedelsdorf is a member of the AfD party. He is happy with equal
rights for gays and women, but he asks whether what homosexuals do
with each other really needs to be taught in German schools or
whether gender-neutral neologisms really need to be adopted to
Riedelsdorf on political correctness: "It
makes no sense to force people to think this or that when they don't
believe it. They will do the opposite as soon as they can."
On WW2: "My grandfather and three of my father's brothers fought in
the war. They did what they were told to do, as any soldier in the
world would. They tried to be honorable. The war was a crime, we
know that, but soldiers did not commit the crimes. That was the SS.
We need a differentiated view of the Third Reich."
AR I can understand and even sympathize
with his views — except that patriotism is nationalism and
nationalism is a tribal atavism that must be damped if not squashed
in the sort of globalized world that I see as our only hope in the
2017 October 7
Jeremy Corbyn: "The next Labour government
will transform Britain by genuinely putting power in the hands of
Socialism has come in three main varieties:
autocratic, populist, and social democratic. Autocratic socialism
was a catastrophe. Populist socialism has never worked economically.
Social democracy has been a triumph.
democrats understand that any successful program for a party in
— avoid the lure of magical thinking on budget
constraints for government
— recognise the crucial role of
incentives in shaping human behaviour
— thoroughly internalise
the importance of a stable institutional framework
that the private sector plays a leading role in the economy
Populist socialism is undisciplined on public finances, unconcerned
about incentives, contemptuous of property rights, hostile to the
private sector, and antagonistic to the constraining institutions.
AR People power means putting
pleasure now over pain later.
Deep Tory Problems
Manchester was a theatre of delusion for the Conservative party.
Hollowed out intellectually, the party has retreated to the comfort
zone of obsession with Europe. The Eurosceptics have released a
toxin into their party which is poisoning their politics.
Tory party has the leader it deserves. The conservatism of Theresa
May consists of some strong ideas weakly held and is reluctantly
liberal on social issues, prone to protectionism in economics, and
patriotic in character.
The Tory party contains dissent. Few
Tory leaders were ever ideologues. A party that pursued a policy of
imperial protection before switching to the advocacy of free trade
without ceasing to be the Conservatives was never defined by either.
Passion on Europe has turned the party into a pressure group.
Europe is their only issue and it is shattering them. Some of them
regard Boris Johnson as their saviour, forgetting that he and his
kind are to blame for their move to the fringe.
AR My published comment under this
article drew by far the most recommendations, so far as I can see,
among many hundreds of comments: "Brexit is an expression of an
unwanted disease. Most British voters who suffered from it didn't
even realise its virulence. They thought detesting foreigners — who
begin at Calais — was a patriotic eccentricity. In fact that
detestation is toxic mind rot."
2017 October 6
I grew up surrounded by books and Oxford was
always on my radar. The Rhodes scholarship financed my graduate work
at Oxford from 2012 to 2014. It was really chance that led me to
take the All Souls exam and win a fellowship.
Must Fall campaign began in South Africa and came to Oxford in 2015.
It has sparked debate about Oxford and its
institutions. The scholarship is a kind of brand and scholars are
quite sensitive to its reputation.
I knew little about Cecil
Rhodes when I won the scholarship. I backed the campaign partly
because of its history and partly because I knew some of the black
students who had launched the campaign and wanted to help.
The movement aims to decolonialize curricula, to help correct the
underrepresentation of black students and academics, and to relocate
the statue of Cecil Rhodes. Rhodes House is not happy with its
methods and language but I hope things will change.
I see no
contradiction between accepting the scholarship and criticizing the
man who financed it. On the contrary, I think it my duty to be aware
of the crimes and contribute to their reparation. The statue should
be put in a museum.
● Rhodes Scholarships
go back to 1902 and colonial capitalist Cecil Rhodes. They are
awarded only to members of certain nations. The Rhodes Trust aims
"to identify and develop leaders" and has funded around 8,000
scholars so far.
● All Souls College
in Oxford was founded in 1438 and contains only fellows. Its
entrance exam for Oxford students is billed as the hardest in the
world: only 2 per year win a generously funded 7-year fellowship.
AR At Oxford, between my third and
fourth degrees, I felt tempted by the All Souls exam — but somehow
never sat it.
2017 October 5
Three men won the Nobel Prize for Physics for
their discovery of gravitational waves. But what of the other
scientists who contributed to the LIGO project?
when Nobel Prizes are awarded in physics, chemistry, and physiology
or medicine, critics note that they are an absurd and anachronistic
way of recognizing scientists for their work.
Nobels have drawn controversy since their inception. Beyond who
should have received the prize and who should not, the problem is
that the Nobels reward three individuals at most for each of the
scientific prizes in any given year. And modern science is a team
The price of reform is low, and the cost of avoiding
it is high. The Nobels feed the pernicious myth of the lone genius.
They reinforce a reward system in science in which the winner takes
all, and the contributions of the many are neglected by
disproportionate attention to the contributions of a few.
in many cases, the prizes are about who has survived. Nobel Prizes
cannot be awarded posthumously. Women have won just 12 of the 214
prizes in physiology or medicine, just 4 of the 175 prizes in
chemistry, and just 2 of the 204 prizes in physics.
this would matter if Nobels were no big deal. But laureates are
blessed with eternal fame — a problem when some turn to
pseudoscience or worse.
2017 October 4
A Banjaxed Conference
By the end of the Conservative party
conference, Theresa May had suffered so many painful betrayals and
humiliations that she should have ditched her speech. Handed a P45
by a comedian as she coughed it out, she had already spent four days
having to suck up all manner of indignities.
The party seemed
to have called an election by mistake. This conference was an
attempt to contain the fallout, which repeatedly
threatened to spill over into open recrimination. Everywhere you
went, you could hear party members muttering about wanting big
ideas, a big vision.
The average age of Conservative
members is around 70. Perhaps there was the odd clue that this sort
of reckoning was in the post. The endless giveaways to baby boomers.
The pollsters who used to say the only
demographic one needed to pay less attention to than young people
was dead people. The sense among the constituency associations that
the definition of young is under 48.
Neither the Tories nor
Labour — both of which proclaim how useless the other
lot are — seem aware what their failure to pull
comfortably ahead against that kind of adversary says about them. We
might hesitate to characterise them as two equally formidable
adversaries grappling at the Reichenbach Falls. Two drunks fighting
in a puddle feels more like it.
The original article is long and witty — I recommend it.
Gravitational Wave Nobelists
Gravitational waves have earned a Nobel
prize for Rainer Weiss, Barry Barish, and Kip Thorne, the three
leaders of the LIGO/VIRGO collaboration that found the waves in
Half of the $1.1 million prize goes to Weiss. The
remainder is shared between Barish and Thorne. Weiss founds ways
back in the 1970s to cancel out sources of background noise that
could be mistaken for gravitational waves. Thorne joined forces with
Weiss to develop the interferometer. Barish was leader of LIGO and
transformed a small research group of 40 into a major international
collaboration of 1000 scientists.
Weiss: "We know about black
holes and neutron stars, but we hope there are other phenomena we
can see because of the gravitational waves they emit."
AR Thorne co-authored with Charles
Misner and John Wheeler the bible of general relativity:
2017 October 3
Guns In America
Since 1970, more Americans have died
from guns (including suicides, murders and accidents) than the sum
total of all the Americans who died in all the wars in American
history, back to the American Revolution. Every day, some 92
Americans die from guns, and American kids are 14 times as likely to
die from guns as children in other developed countries.
Godfather Of Brexit
A friend says UK foreign secretary Boris
Johnson has reinvented himself as the godfather of Brexit.
cabinet minister: "Boris was in danger of sliding out of view but he
is now back in the game. You get some party activists chuntering
about his disloyalty to Theresa May, but at the same meetings you
get people saying — Good old Boris, I'm glad somebody is saying
BoJo: "It would be foolish to leave the EU
only to remain in orbit in a state of lunar capture."
BoJo Brexit Bombast
Boris Johnson is wrong in his impatience for
a fast Brexit. He is right to sense that delay suits the Remainers.
Once Britain enters a holding pen between in and out, the chances of
BoJo has no positive account of exit because there
is none to be had. The EU does not hold member states back from
external trade or from munificent healthcare spending. BoJo has a
political hunch that exit has to happen at pace or not at all.
No prime minister will dare to rescind the referendum. But
Britain could ease into a limbo in which two years of transition
become more. Transition is the last public service of Theresa May.
2017 October 2
The New York Times
The military exercise
Zapad 2017 showed progress in the Russian ability to conduct
complex, large-scale operations, using drones and other new
technology. It far exceeded in scope and scale what Moscow had said
it would conduct.
Before the exercise, Russia said the drills
would involve fewer than 13,000 troops engaged in a counterterrorism
scenario in Belarus, the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad, the Baltic
Sea region, and around St. Petersburg. Instead, tens of thousands of
Russian troops in the Arctic and Far East, the Black Sea, near
Ukraine, and in the Abkhazia region of Georgia also joined in.
NATO spokeswoman Oana Lungescu: "In effect, these activities
together constituted a single strategic exercise, involving the full
spectrum of Russian and Belarusian military."
Isaac Newton went up to Cambridge in 1661. As
a Fellow of Trinity College and Lucasian Professor of Mathematics
from 1669 onward, Newton was obliged to subscribe to the 39 articles
of the Church of England. Unusually for a fellow at this period, he
refused to take holy orders.
In addition to his public work
as a mathematician and physicist, Newton secretly studied Christian
doctrines. He concluded that the central doctrines of Christianity
were monstrous idolatries and perversions of true religion.
Newton believed he was one of the true believers mentioned in the
book of the Apocalypse, who would be resurrected to rule over
mortals in the Millennium. The Archbishop of Canterbury talked with
him and thought he was mad.
2017 October 1
Conservative Party Conference
Theresa May says the cabinet is united and she will be leader for the long term.
The Russian government meddled in the US presidential election.
Shortly after the election, Facebook co-founder Mark Zuckerberg
dismissed as "a pretty crazy idea" the notion that fake news might
have won it for Trump. Last week he said he regretted those words.
Russian trolls with bogus identities bought more than 3,000
Facebook ads. The ads could have been seen by tens of millions of
people. Russians used Facebook Events to organise phoney political
protests in the United States. Twitter was used in a similar way.
It is still too early to conclude that Russian use of social
media decided the election. But we probably can conclude that social
media decided the election. The only indicators that reliably
predicted the election result were Facebook and Twitter. Trump
completely dominated Clinton on both.
Facebook has more than
2 billion users around the world. In America, about two-thirds of
adults are on Facebook. Nearly half get their news from it. The most
powerful media publisher in the history of the world — Citizen Zuck.
Henry Markram aims to understand the
workings of our brains. As our brains think, learn and remember,
they create elaborate but ephemeral structures in at least seven
mathematical dimensions. These transient structures, which appear
and disappear like sandcastles on a beach, could help us understand
how the brain creates our thoughts and feelings.
The Blue Brain Project
was launched in 2005, with the aim of simulating the human brain
inside a computer. In late 2015, the team announced it had recreated
a cylinder of rat brain 0.5 mm wide and 2 mm long, containing 31,000
neurons of more than 200 different types, with some 8 million
connections between them. For Markram, the project director, such
simulations let you see how neurons work together at a level of
detail inaccessible in a real brain. Making sense of the data
involves algebraic topology.
A network of neurons can be
depicted as a graph. A clique is a dense type of graph in which
every neuron is connected to every other neuron. They correspond to
geometrical shapes: 3 neurons in a clique form a 2D triangle, 4 form
a 3D tetrahedron, 5 neurons a 4D structure, and so on. Researchers
see such cliques in real brains but cannot see the direction of
information flow within them. This directionality is clear in a
A team looked for directed cliques in the Blue
Brain data, in which information enters via one neuron, passes
through each of the others and exits via the last. The biologically
inspired network had many times more directed cliques than a
randomly constructed network would, including cliques with up to
8 neurons in 7D cliques — which may increase as the Blue Brain
simulation grows in size.
Neurons that fire together wire
together. In the simulated brain, pairs of neurons connected as part
of a directed clique are more likely to fire together than other
pairs. The bigger the clique a pair of neurons belong to, the more
likely they are to fire together. Simple cliques form first, and
then quickly grow bigger. The stronger the stimulus and the more
synchronized the input received by the neurons, the bigger the
cliques. Once the peak is reached, the structures collapse.
Typically, the process lasts a few tens of milliseconds.
Markram: "When anything happens, the brain builds the most complex
structure that it can. It climbs as high as it possibly can go, and
then it collapses. All stimuli evoke the same stereotypical,
multidimensional sandcastle building and collapsing."
thinks this topological approach could help crack consciousness.
AR Wonderful — this math
fits my picture of consciousness in